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Rapid calcium-dependent exocytosis underlies neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. Despite the fundamental importance of this process, neither the relationship between presynaptic intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) and rate of exocytosis, nor the maximal rate of secretion is known quantitatively. To provide this information, we have(More)
The kinetics of the secretory response in bovine chromaffin cells following flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ were studied by capacitance (Cm) measurements with millisecond time resolution. After elevation of the internal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), Cm rises rapidly with one or more exponentials. The time constant of the fastest component decreases for(More)
Presynaptic N-type calcium channels interact with syntaxin and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) through a binding site in the intracellular loop connecting domains II and III of the alpha1 subunit. This binding region was loaded into embryonic spinal neurons of Xenopus by early blastomere injection. After culturing, synaptic transmission(More)
We have compared capacitance and amperometric measurements in bovine chromaffin cells when secretion was elicited by flash photolysis of caged-calcium or step depolarizations. Total amperometric charge depended linearly on the amount of capacitance increase in both types of experiments. Furthermore, the properties of resolvable amperometric spikes after(More)
The generation of spectral mutants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) set the stage for multiple-color imaging in living cells. However, the use of this technique has been limited by a spectral overlap of the available GFP mutants and/or by insufficient resolution in both time and space. Using a new setup for dual-color imaging, we demonstrate here the(More)
There are many applications for classification of acoustic transients produced by supersonic projectile fire. Analysis of existing models for such transients suggests they have properties which may be well-captured by a transform of a signal into joint acoustic and modulation frequency: a modulation spectral representation. Simple features are extracted(More)
The UV photoelectron spectra of several tetracyclic heteroaromatic compounds (2-9) which are pi-isoelectronic with triphenylene (1) have been recorded and analysed making use of semiempirical AM1 and PM3 as well as ab initio/DFT B3LYP calculations. In one series of compounds (2-7), the peripheral benzene rings of 1 are successively substituted by thiophene(More)
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