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Little is known about the importance of trade-offs between ageing and other life history traits, or the effects of ageing on sexual selection, particularly in wild populations suffering high extrinsic mortality rates. Life history theory suggests that trade-offs between reproduction and somatic maintenance may constrain individuals with higher initial(More)
Most research on life span and aging has been based on captive populations of short-lived animals; however, we know very little about the expression of these traits in wild populations of such organisms. Because life span and aging are major components of fitness, the extent to which the results of many evolutionary studies in the laboratory can be(More)
Two or more competing predators can coexist using a single homogeneous prey species if the system containing all three undergoes internally generated fluctuations in density. However, the dynamics of species that coexist via this mechanism have not been extensively explored. Here, we examine both the nature of the dynamics and the responses of the mean(More)
Natural populations often show variation in traits that can affect the strength of interspecific interactions. Interaction strengths in turn influence the fate of pairwise interacting populations and the stability of food webs. Understanding the mechanisms relating individual phenotypic variation to interaction strengths is thus central to assess how trait(More)
Many foraging animals find food using composite random search strategies, which consist of intensive and extensive search modes. Models of composite search can generate predictions about how optimal foragers should behave in each search mode, and how they should determine when to switch between search modes. Most of these models assume that foragers use(More)
BACKGROUND A mismatch has emerged between models and data of host-parasite evolution. Theory readily predicts that parasites can promote host diversity through mechanisms such as disruptive selection. Yet, despite these predictions, empirical evidence for parasite-mediated increases in host diversity remains surprisingly scant. RESULTS Here, we document(More)
We investigate the dynamics of a series of two-prey-one-predator models in which the predator exhibits adaptive diet choice based on the different energy contents and/or handling times of the two prey species. The predator is efficient at exploiting its prey and has a saturating functional response; these two features combine to produce sustained population(More)
Males and females allocate and schedule reproductive effort in very different ways. Because the timing and amount of reproductive effort influence survival and thus the optimization of life histories, mortality and senescence are predicted to be sex specific. However, age-specific mortality rates of wild animals are often difficult to quantify in natural(More)
Classic models of apparent competition predict negative indirect effects between prey with a shared enemy. If predator per capita growth rates are nonlinear, then endogenously generated periodic cycles are predicted to generate less negative or even positive indirect effects between prey. Here I determine how exogenous mechanisms such as environmental(More)