Chad Douglas Cole

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Gramicidin A (gA), with four Trp residues per monomer, has an increased conductance compared to its Phe replacement analogs. When the dipole moment of the Trp13 side chain is increased by fluorination at indole position 5 (FgA), the conductance is expected to increase further. gA and FgA conductances to Na+, K+, and H+ were measured in planar(More)
Fluorination of peptide side chains has been shown to perturb gramicidin channel conductance without significantly changing the average side chain structure, which, it is hoped, will allow detailed analysis of electrostatic modulation of current flow. Here we report a 1312-point potassium current-voltage-concentration data set for homodimeric channels(More)
The authors review and compare posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A review of the literature is performed wherein the history, indications for surgery, surgical procedures with their respective biomechanical advantages, potential complications, and grafting substances are presented. Along with the(More)
Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are rare and are seldom a cause of spinal cord compression. They are thought to arise from congenital defects in the dura mater, and they almost always communicate with the intrathecal subarachnoid space through a small defect in the dura. The mainstay of treatment in patients with neurological symptoms is surgical(More)
The optimal treatment of craniopharyngioma in children remains a challenge. The use of complete excision to minimize recurrence continues to be controversial because of the risk of postoperative morbidity and death. Advances in skull base approaches, modern microsurgical techniques, neuroimaging, and hormone replacement therapy, however, have allowed safe(More)
OBJECTIVE Although volatile anesthetics have been widely accepted in anesthetic management for neurosurgery, they reduce vascular resistance, resulting in increased cerebral blood flow and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). In patients with elevated ICP who undergo craniotomy, the increase in ICP during surgery from inhaled anesthetics can make the(More)
Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are relatively uncommon causes of spinal cord compression in the pediatric population that are thought to arise from congenital defects in the dura mater. Most reports describe such cysts communicating with the intrathecal subarachnoid space through a small defect in the dura. The authors describe the case of a child(More)
OBJECT Cranial reconstruction after skull base surgery is important for restoration of function and cosmesis. The authors describe their experience with the Medpor porous polyethylene implant for cosmetic cranioplasty and reconstruction after skull base surgery. METHODS Medpor, a biocompatible implant, is flexible and can be contoured to facilitate(More)
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have become common surgical techniques for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty involves the percutaneous injection of bone cement into the cancellous bone of a vertebral body with the goals of pain alleviation and preventing further loss of vertebral body height. Kyphoplasty utilizes an inflatable(More)
Since the earliest recorded history of medicine, physicians have been challenged by the difficulty in relieving the great pain experienced by individuals suffering from trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The nature of the pain and the events that incite it have been well described, but effective treatments with acceptable levels of side effects remained elusive(More)