Chad Carlson

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Epileptic cortex is characterized by paroxysmal electrical discharges. Analysis of these interictal discharges typically manifests as spike-wave complexes on electroencephalography, and plays a critical role in diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Despite their fundamental importance, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms generating these(More)
Despite decades of cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies, it is unclear if letters are identified before word-form encoding during reading, or if letters and their combinations are encoded simultaneously and interactively. Here using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that a 'letter-form' area (responding more to consonant(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the detection of structural abnormalities in patients with epilepsy. However, many focal abnormalities remain undetected in routine visual inspection. Here we use an automated, surface-based method for quantifying morphometric features related to epileptogenic cortical malformations to detect abnormal cortical(More)
Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is associated with widespread cortical network abnormalities on electroencephalography. Resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), based on fMRI, can assess the brain's global functional organization and its disruption in clinical conditions. We compared RSFC associated with the 'default mode network' (DMN) between(More)
Although the cause of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP) is unknown, evidence implicates respiratory compromise. Most cases occur while the patient is in bed and unsupervised. We investigated the efficacy of the Medpage bed seizure monitor to detect generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Patients with a history of tonic-clonic seizures were(More)
OBJECT The authors undertook this study to analyze the efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in a large consecutive series of children 18 years of age and younger with treatment-resistant epilepsy and compare the safety and efficacy in children under 12 years of age with the outcomes in older children. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 141(More)
OBJECTIVE Studies have reported improved seizure control with increased duration of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) but are prone to methodological biases. We analyzed the efficacy of VNS over time in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE) who underwent VNS therapy 10 or more years. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed 65 consecutive patients (29(More)
Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered(More)
Accurate pronunciation of phonetically irregular words (exception words) requires prior exposure to unique relationships between orthographic and phonemic features. Whether such word knowledge is accompanied by structural variation in areas associated with orthographic-to-phonemic transformations has not been investigated. We used high-resolution MRI to(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of vagus nerve stimulation in a consecutive series of adults and children with treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE). METHODS In this retrospective review of a prospectively created database of 436 consecutive patients who underwent vagus nerve stimulator implantation for TRE between(More)