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Focal activation of glutamate receptors in distal dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells triggers voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel-mediated plateau potentials that are confined to the stimulated dendrite. We examined the role of dendritic K(+) conductances in determining the amplitude, duration, and spatial compartmentalization of plateau potentials.(More)
Long-term increases in the strength of excitatory transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 cell synapses of the hippocampus require the insertion of new alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) into the synapse, but the kinetics of this process are not well established. Using microphotolysis of caged glutamate to activate(More)
Digital holography is an emerging technology that can generate complex light patterns for controlling the excitability of neurons and neural circuits. The strengths of this technique include a high efficiency with which available light can be effectively utilized and the ability to deliver highly focused light to multiple locations simultaneously. Here we(More)
To understand the cellular basis of learning and memory, the neurophysiology of the hippocampus has been largely examined in thin transverse slice preparations. However, the synaptic architecture along the longitudinal septo-temporal axis perpendicular to the transverse projections in CA1 is largely unknown, despite its potential significance for(More)
The process by which synaptic inputs separated in time and space are integrated by the dendritic arbor to produce a sequence of action potentials is among the most fundamental signal transformations that takes place within the central nervous system. Some aspects of this complex process, such as integration at the level of individual dendritic branches,(More)
Light is a versatile and precise means to control neuronal excitability. The recent introduction of light sensitive effectors such as channel-rhodopsin and caged neurotransmitters have led to interests in developing better means to control patterns of light in space and time that are useful for experimental neuroscience. One conventional strategy, employed(More)
Conversation between two individuals requires verbal dialogue; the majority of human communication however consists of non-verbal cues such as gestures and facial expressions. Blind individuals are thus hindered in their interaction capabilities. To address this, we are building a computer vision system with facial recognition and expression algorithms to(More)
A forward-imaging needle-type optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe with Doppler OCT (DOCT) capability has the potential to solve critical challenges in interventional procedures. A case in point is stereotactic neurosurgery where probes are advanced into the brain based on predetermined coordinates. Laceration of blood vessels in front of the advancing(More)
Traumatic injury to the CNS results in chronic partial deafferentation of subsets of surviving neurons. Such injuries are often followed by a delayed but long-lasting period of aberrant hyperexcitability. The cellular mechanisms underlying this delayed hyperexcitability are poorly understood. We developed an in vitro model of deafferentation and reactive(More)
The delivery of therapeutic agents directly to targets deep within the brain is becoming an important tool in the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders. Currently, the standard method to accomplish this is by using stereotactic procedures. While this existing method is adequate for many experimental situations, it is essentially a blind procedure(More)