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Class I heat-inducible genes in Bacillus subtilis consist of the heptacistronic dnaK and the bicistronic groE operon and form the CIRCE regulon. Both operons are negatively regulated at the level of transcription by the HrcA repressor interacting with its operator, the CIRCE element. Here, we demonstrate that the DnaK chaperone machine is not involved in(More)
The trigger factor of Escherichia coli is a prolyl isomerase and accelerates proline-limited steps in protein folding with a very high efficiency. It associates with nascent polypeptide chains at the ribosome and is thought to catalyse the folding of newly synthesized proteins. In its enzymatic mechanism the trigger factor follows the Michaelis-Menten(More)
Cyclophilin and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) accelerate cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerization and bind to and mediate the effects of the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and FK506. The normal cellular functions of these proteins, however, are unknown. We altered the active sites of FKBP12 and mitochondrial cyclophilin from the yeast Saccharomyces(More)
The prolyl isomerase activity of cyclophilins is traditionally measured by an assay in which prolyl cis/trans isomerization in a chromogenic tetrapeptide is coupled with its isomer-specific cleavage by chymotrypsin. Two variants of mitochondrial cyclophilin with substitutions in the presumed active site (R73A and H144Q) are inactive in the protease-coupled(More)
Trigger factor is a ribosome-bound folding helper, which, apparently, combines two functions, chaperoning of nascent proteins and catalyzing prolyl isomerization in their folding. Immediate chaperone binding at the ribosome might interfere with rapid protein folding reactions, and we find that trigger factor indeed retards the in vitro folding of a protein(More)
The small single-domain protein ribonuclease T1 (RNase T1) and variants thereof are good substrates for investigating the mechanisms of catalyzed and assisted protein folding. RNase T1 contains two cis prolines and two disulfide bonds, and the kinetic mechanism of its folding is well known. The wild-type form and designed variants that differ in the number(More)
The monoclonal antibody tAb2 binds the N-terminal sequence of transforming growth factor alpha, VVSHFND. With the help of combinatorial peptide libraries it is possible to find homologous peptides that bind tAb2 with an affinity similar to that of the epitope. The conformational flexibility of short peptides can be constrained by cyclization in order to(More)
Cyclophilin (the product of the ppiB gene) and the trigger factor (the product of the tig gene) are the only cytosolic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that are known in Bacillus subtilis. Both enzymes catalyze the in vitro refolding of ribonuclease T1, a reaction that is limited in rate by a prolyl cis/trans isomerization. The efficiency of cyclophilin(More)
The Escherichia coli trigger factor is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) which catalyzes proline-limited protein folding extremely well. It has been found associated with nascent protein chains as well as with the chaperone GroEL. The trigger factor utilizes protein regions outside the central catalytic domain for catalyzing refolding of(More)
The trigger factor is associated with bacterial ribosomes and catalyzes proline-limited protein folding reactions. Its folding activity is very high and conserved in evolution, as shown for the homologous enzymes from Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma genitalium. The folding protein substrate (a variant of ribonuclease T1) binds with high affinity to the(More)