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This study determined the birthdates of the tyrosine hydroxylase-(TH) immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the zona incerta (ZI), periventricular nucleus (PeVN) and arcuate nucleus (AN) of male and female rats. 'Long-survival' [3H]thymidine autoradiography combined with TH immunocytochemistry, the first enzyme of catecholamine synthesis, was used. In males, TH-IR(More)
It is currently believed that sexual differentiation of the brain is mediated entirely by the epigenetic action of gonadal steroids during a critical period of development. Ingrid Reisert and Christoph Pilgrim review sexual dimorphisms of monoaminergic systems, which also appear to be generated by sex steroids. However, there are a number of observations(More)
The projections from the claustrum to the cerebral cortex in the rat were examined by means of retrogradely transported fluorescent tracers Fast Blue (FB) and Diamidino Yellow dihydrochloride (DY), injected in the prefrontal, motor, somatosensory, auditory, and visual fields. In all cases, substantial numbers of retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in(More)
Estrogen formation catalyzed by neural aromatase is crucial for the sexual differentiation of the brain. Ontogenic expression of aromatase mRNA and aromatase activity were studied in male and female rat midbrains. Aromatase mRNA was transiently expressed in both sexes showing maximum levels on postnatal day (P)2 and being absent on P20 and in adults.(More)
The influence of steroid hormones on the differentiation of catecholaminergic and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons was studied in dissociated cell cultures from embryonic day 14 (E14) rat diencephalon, mesencephalon and metencephalon treated for 6 days with 17 beta-estradiol (E), testosterone (T), 5 alpha-dihydrostestosterone (DHT), progesterone (P),(More)
The early dopaminergic input from the midbrain may play an important role in the development of the basal ganglia. We therefore investigated whether and how dopamine affects the morphogenesis of striatal target neurons. Dissociated cell cultures of embryonic day 17 rat striatum were raised for seven days. Cells were then incubated with dopamine or various(More)
Neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders related to dopaminergic transmission typically exhibit a sex-specific prevalence. In order to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms, primary cultures of dissociated embryonic rat midbrain were subject to a 24 h treatment with dopamine in concentrations between 1 and 1000 microM. Dopamine caused a(More)
In order to elucidate cellular events responsible for sex differentiation of the nigro-striatal system, we studied the influence of estrogen on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in sex-specific dissociated cell cultures of embryonic day 14 rat mesencephalon. Cultures were raised in the absence or presence of 17 beta-estradiol (10(-12) M) and(More)
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) stimulates neurite outgrowth and growth cone formation in cultures of embryonic rat striatum through activation of D1 but not D2 receptors. We show here that neurite outgrowth could be stimulated to a similar extent by elevating cellular cAMP levels. Second, the neuritotrophic effect of DA was completely abolished by(More)