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Environmental and occupational exposures are typically to mixtures of chemicals, although most toxicity information is for individual compounds. Interactions between chemicals may involve pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic effects resulting in modulation of toxicity. Therefore, physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling has been used to analyze data(More)
The safety of the avermectin, selamectin, was evaluated for topical use on the skin of cats of age six weeks and above, including reproducing cats and cats infected with adult heartworms. All studies used healthy cats. Acute safety was evaluated in domestic cross-bred cats. Margin of safety was evaluated in domestic-shorthaired cats, starting at six weeks(More)
Selamectin is a broad-spectrum avermectin endectocide for treatment and control of canine parasites. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the clinical safety of selamectin for topical use in dogs 6 weeks of age and older, including breeding animals, avermectin-sensitive Collies, and heartworm-positive animals. The margin of safety was evaluated in(More)
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), provides only limited protection against certain forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. While infection with Mtb can be treated with antibiotics, the therapy is expensive, toxic, and requires several months for treatment. In addition, the(More)
Incubation of human liver cytosol with either R-(+)-[3H-N'CH3]nicotine or S-(-)-[3H-N'CH3]nicotine results in the formation of the corresponding N-methyl quaternary ammonium metabolite. A substrate stereoselectivity was observed in that the turnover number for the methylation of the S-(-)-isomer was 0.25 pmol mg-1 protein h-1, whereas that for the(More)
The N-methylation of pyridine in vitro, using dialysed and undialysed hepatic, pulmonary, renal and brain preparations from rabbits, is described. Analysis of the quaternary metabolite, N-methylpyridinium ion, was carried out by selective ion-pair extraction and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) using a u.v. detector, and(More)
Guinea pig lung tissue is dramatically depleted of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) after chronic exposure (600 micrograms/h s.c. for 21 days) of animals to either R-(+)- or S-(-)-nicotine enantiomers; S-(-)-nicotine decreased lung SAH levels by 60-fold, while R-(+)-nicotine caused an 11-fold reduction of SAH, relative to control values. Lung(More)
From several years, we have been studying the intra-specific variability of apple tree architectural development [1,2,3]. These studies were based on a similar method for measuring and analysing plant architecture, which combines topological and geometrical descriptions of plants at several scales simultaneously [4,5]. 3D mock-ups were then built from the(More)