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Oral administration of retinol (50 mg/kg) to NMRI mice on day 11 of gestation (vaginal plug = day 0) led to the metabolic formation of high quantities of all-trans retinoic acid and all-trans-4-oxoretinoic acid, both known as potent teratogenic agents in the mouse. A 96% reduction of the area under the concentration-versus-timecurve (AUC) of metabolically(More)
Human plasma was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography for the presence of retinoic acid and 4-oxoretinoic acid isomers. Peaks that coeluted with the reference compounds all-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-4-oxoretinoic acid were routinely observed in human plasma. These retinoids were unequivocally identified by the(More)
Plasma concentrations of retinyl esters, retinol, retinol-binding protein and the polar retinol metabolites all-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-4-oxoretinoic acid and 13-cis-4-oxoretinoic acid were measured for six male volunteers who received 0.46 mg retinyl palmitate per kilogram body weight as oily drops (equivalent to 0.25 mg(More)
Pregnant mice received 10 or 100 mg retinol/kg body wt. by gavage on day 11 of gestation (plug day = day 0). One group of animals was used for a pharmacokinetic study. At various times after dosing, plasma and tissue samples were collected and analyzed by HPLC for retinyl esters, retinol, 13-cis- and all-trans-retinoic acid and 13-cis-4-oxo and(More)
BACKGROUND Mouse strain differences in teratologic response are well documented. However, because retinoids cause similar malformation syndromes across many species, the strain differences may be predicted to be minimal. The goals of this study were to characterize and explain the differences between the C57BL/6N and SWV mouse strains in terms of(More)
Retinoid concentrations were analyzed in plasma of nonpregnant female cynomolgus monkeys after oral administration of retinol or retinyl acetate at doses of 2, 10, or 50 mg (as retinol) per kilogram body weight dissolved in acetone/soybean oil (1/9) or acetone/Tween 20/water (1/5/4). All-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-4-oxoretinoic(More)
It has been reported that fractionated doses of 13-cis-retinoic acid are disproportionately more embryotoxic in pregnant mice than is the same dose given in a single bolus. Here, we examined limited pharmacokinetic profiles of a single (100 mg/kg dose given to NMRI mice on day 11 of gestation) versus multiple (3 x 100 mg/kg, 4 h apart) doses in an effort to(More)
Eight metabolites of retinol were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the plasma of the non-human primate Macaca fascicularis after acute exposure to 150,000 IU of vitamin A per kilogram body weight. After enrichment and further chromatographic purification, the metabolites were reinjected individually into a second HPLC system(More)
Rat adrenal cells were incubated with various concentrations of two orally active azole antimycotics in order to evaluate the effects on steroidogenesis. The first compound was ketoconazole, a well-known inhibitor not only of fungal cytochrome P-450 but at higher concentrations also of mammalian cytochrome P-450 dependent enzymes. The second was(More)
The concentrations of retinoic acid compounds were monitored by a newly developed highly sensitive HPLC procedure in plasma of six volunteers who received 833 IU vitamin A per kg body weight per day during a 20-day period. There was a significant increase of alltrans-retinoic acid (two-fold), 13-cis-retinoic acid (7-fold) and 13-cis-4-oxoretinoic acid(More)