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The present study assessed whether prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure affected adult spatial learning and hippocampal morphology. Water maze performance, the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell field, and the dentate gyrus-granule cell layer (DG-GCL) morphology were assessed at adulthood (70+ days of age) in males, females, androgen-treated (testosterone(More)
Animal studies on the effects of chronic variable stress during the peripubertal-juvenile period on hippocampal structure and function are lacking. Twenty-eight-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to random, variable physical or social stress regimens for 4 weeks. Hippocampal volume was found to continue to grow in all lamina examined during the(More)
In humans, chronic intermittent and uncontrollable stress during adolescence is viewed as a key factor for vulnerability to drug abuse and development of psychopathologies later in life. Less is known about the long-term effects of chronic stress in animals during the juvenile period. Although there is evidence of cross sensitization during prenatal period(More)
There is increasing evidence for adolescence as a time period vulnerable to environmental perturbations such as stress. What is unclear is the persistent nature of the effects of stress and how specific these effects are to the type of stressor. In this review, we describe the effects of chronic, unpredictable stress (CUS) exposure during adolescence on(More)
Glomerular convergence has been proposed to rely on interactions between like olfactory axons, however topographic targeting is influenced by guidance molecules encountered in the olfactory bulb. Disruption of these cues during development misdirects sensory axons, however little is known about the role of bulb-derived signals in later life, as new axons(More)
The hippocampus is implicated in spatial cognition, which is sexually dimorphic and developmentally sensitive to gonadal steroids. Previously we have shown a sex difference in CA3 pyramidal cell layer volume and neuronal soma size that was reversible with neonatal castration in males or prenatal treatment of females with either testosterone propionate (TP)(More)
delta-Opioid receptor agonists have antidepressant-like effects in behavioral models of depression. Chronic administration of classical antidepressants upregulates mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor, TrkB in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. Increases in BDNF and TrkB levels(More)
An outbred rat model of novelty-seeking phenotype has predictive value for the expression of locomotor sensitization to nicotine. When experimentally naïve rats are exposed to a novel environment, some display high rates of locomotor reactivity (HRs, scores ranking at top 1/3rd of the population), whereas some display low rates (LRs, scores ranking at(More)
Numerous factors modulate neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus and subventricular zone, but it is often not clear if the modulation is mediated by direct effects on the proliferating and differentiating cells or secondary to effects on other cells. Also, while some factors selectively affect neurogenesis in one of the neurogenetic zones, it is not clear(More)
A rat model of the novelty-seeking phenotype predicts vulnerability to the expression of behavioral sensitization to nicotine, where locomotor reactivity to novelty is used to screen experimentally-naïve rats for high (HR) versus low (LR) responders. The present study examines the long-term neuropeptidergic and neuroplastic adaptations associated with the(More)