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Twenty-one-nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24-nucleotide Pol IV-dependent small interfering RNAs (p4-siRNAs) are the most abundant types of small RNAs in angiosperms. Some miRNAs are well conserved among different plant lineages, whereas others are less conserved, and it is not clear whether less-conserved miRNAs have the same functionality as the well(More)
microRNA156 (miR156) affects developmental timing in flowering plants. miR156 and its target relationships with members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family appear universally conserved in land plants, but the specific functions of miR156 outside of flowering plants are unknown. We find that miR156 promotes a developmental change(More)
Endogenous 24 nt short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), derived mostly from intergenic and repetitive genomic regions, constitute a major class of endogenous small RNAs in flowering plants. Accumulation of Arabidopsis thaliana 24 nt siRNAs requires the Dicer family member DCL3, and clear homologs of DCL3 exist in both flowering and non-flowering plants. However,(More)
High-throughput sequencing of small RNAs (sRNA-seq) is a popular method used to discover and annotate microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs). One of the key steps in sRNA-seq data analysis is alignment to a reference genome. sRNA-seq libraries often have a high proportion of reads that align to(More)
Many plant small RNAs are sequence-specific negative regulators of target mRNAs and/or chromatin. In angiosperms, the two most abundant endogenous small RNA populations are usually 21-nucleotide microRNAs (miRNAs) and 24-nucleotide heterochromatic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Heterochromatic siRNAs are derived from repetitive regions and reinforce DNA(More)
A key goal in genomics is the complete annotation of the expressed regions of the genome. In plants, substantial portions of the genome make regulatory small RNAs produced by Dicer-Like (DCL) proteins and utilized by Argonaute (AGO) proteins. These include miRNAs and various types of endogenous siRNAs. Small RNA-seq, enabled by cheap and fast DNA(More)
CC-BY-NC 4.0 International license peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. It is made available under a The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not. Abstract Plant small RNAs are subject to various modifications. Previous reports revealed widespread 3' modifications (truncations and non-templated tailing) of plant miRNAs when the(More)
Plant small RNAs are subject to various modifications. Previous reports revealed widespread 3' modifications (truncations and non-templated tailing) of plant miRNAs when the 2'-O-methyltransferase HEN1 is absent. However, non-templated nucleotides in plant heterochromatic siRNAs have not been deeply studied, especially in wild-type plants. We systematically(More)
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