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Karrikins and strigolactones (SL) are two classes of butenolide compounds that control many aspects of plant physiology. Karrikins, originally found in the smoke of forest fires, have the ability to stimulate seed germination [1]. SL are endogenous plant hormones that mediate responses to low levels of soil nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrate [2]. They(More)
Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole/ion mobility/orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (oa-TOF) mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-MS) was used to study the isomeric transformations of trans-5-caffeoylquinic acid, an extremely active compound present in multiple vegetables, fruits, and beverages. The UPLC/oa-TOF MS results proved(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major worldwide health problem. Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota influences NAFLD pathogenesis. Here, a murine model of high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) NAFLD was used, and the effects of alterations in the gut microbiota on NAFLD were determined. Mice treated with antibiotics or tempol(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism. Here we show that treatment of mice with glycine-β-muricholic acid (Gly-MCA) inhibits FXR signalling exclusively in intestine, and improves metabolic parameters in mouse models of obesity. Gly-MCA is a selective high-affinity FXR inhibitor that can be administered orally and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Famitinib is a novel multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor under development for cancer treatment. This study aims to characterize the metabolic and bioactivation pathways of famitinib. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The metabolites in human plasma, urine and feces were identified via ultra-high performance liquid(More)
Morinidazole [R,S-1-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-3-morpholinopropan-2-ol] is a new 5-nitroimidazole class antimicrobial agent. The present study aimed to determine the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of morinidazole in humans and to identify the enzymes responsible for the formation of the major metabolites. Plasma and urine samples were collected(More)
The need for rapid, sensitive and effective identification and quantitation of drugs and metabolites to accelerate drug discovery and development has given MS its central position in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic research. This review attempts to orient the readers with respect to hybrid Q-TOF MS, which enables accurate mass measurement and generates(More)
Apatinib is a new oral antiangiogenic molecule that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. The present study aimed to determine the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and excretion of apatinib in humans and to identify the enzymes responsible for its metabolism. The primary routes of apatinib biotransformation included E- and(More)
3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) is a cardiovascular drug currently used for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. The present study aims to investigate the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and excretion of NBP in humans and identify the enzymes responsible for the formation of major metabolites. NBP underwent extensive metabolism after an oral administration of 200 mg(More)
3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) [(±)-3-butyl-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone] is an anti-cerebral-ischemia drug. Moderate hepatotoxicity has been observed in clinical applications. One of the major metabolites, 3-N-acetylcysteine-NBP, has been detected in human urine, indicating the formation of a reactive metabolite. We elucidated the formation mechanism of the reactive(More)