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Obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance and establishes the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the molecular mechanisms of this association are poorly understood. The c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) can interfere with insulin action in cultured cells and are activated by inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids,(More)
Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using cell culture and mouse models, we show that obesity causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This stress in turn leads to suppression of insulin receptor signaling through hyperactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and subsequent(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanistic link can be exploited for therapeutic purposes with orally active chemical chaperones. 4-Phenyl butyric acid and taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid alleviated ER stress in cells and whole animals.(More)
Adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein, aP2 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, and integrates inflammatory and metabolic responses. Studies in aP2-deficient mice have shown that this lipid chaperone has a significant role in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Here we demonstrate that an(More)
Circadian changes in the interactions between L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and morphine-induced antinociception were investigated by the mouse hot-plate test. Both the basal pain sensitivity and morphine-induced analgesia undergo significant 24 h variations. L-NAME (40 mg/kg, i.p.) alone did not show any(More)
Circadian variations in the interaction between calcium channel blockers and morphine-induced analgesia were determined by the mouse hot-plate test. Calcium channel blockers diltiazem, verapamil, or nicardipine alone did not display any significant analgesic effect, but all of them potentiated morphine-induced analgesia when injected 30 min prior to(More)
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