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Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using cell culture and mouse models, we show that obesity causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This stress in turn leads to suppression of insulin receptor signaling through hyperactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and subsequent(More)
Obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance and establishes the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the molecular mechanisms of this association are poorly understood. The c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) can interfere with insulin action in cultured cells and are activated by inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids,(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanistic link can be exploited for therapeutic purposes with orally active chemical chaperones. 4-Phenyl butyric acid and taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid alleviated ER stress in cells and whole animals.(More)
Adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein, aP2 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, and integrates inflammatory and metabolic responses. Studies in aP2-deficient mice have shown that this lipid chaperone has a significant role in several aspects of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Here we demonstrate that an(More)
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. The fatty acid binding proteins aP2 (fatty acid binding protein [FABP]-4) and mal1 (FABP5) are closely related and both are expressed in adipocytes. Previous studies in(More)
Adipose tissue inflammation is a characteristic of obesity. However, the mechanisms that regulate this inflammatory response and link adipose inflammation to systemic metabolic consequences are not fully understood. In this study, we have taken advantage of the highly restricted coexpression of adipocyte/macrophage fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) aP2(More)
Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) are implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms mediating these chronic effects are not completely understood. We demonstrate that TNFalpha signaling through TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 suppresses AMPK activity via transcriptional upregulation of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). This in(More)
Increase in adipose mass results in obesity and modulation of several factors in white adipose tissue (WAT). Two important examples are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and leptin, both of which are upregulated in adipose tissue in obesity. In order to isolate genes differentially expressed in the WAT of genetically obese db/db mice compared to their(More)
Elevated levels of the hormone resistin, which is secreted by fat cells, are proposed to cause insulin resistance and to serve as a link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this report we show that resistin expression is significantly decreased in the white adipose tissue of several different models of obesity including the ob/ob, db/db, tub/tub, and(More)
Circadian changes in the interactions between L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and morphine-induced antinociception were investigated by the mouse hot-plate test. Both the basal pain sensitivity and morphine-induced analgesia undergo significant 24 h variations. L-NAME (40 mg/kg, i.p.) alone did not show any(More)