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Neuropathic pain (NPP) is a frequently reported symptom described by 50–80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although Th1 cell activation is known to drive the pathology of MS, this critical step has also been suggested to be involved in the neuroimmune induction of NPP. The release of pain inducing inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor(More)
The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the resting multiunit activity of the vestibular afferents during development using the isolated inner ear of embryonic and postnatal chickens (E15-E21 and P5). GABA (10(-3) to 10(-5) M; n = 133) and muscimol (10(-3) M) elicited an increase in the frequency of the basal(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the modulation of spontaneous afferent activity by ATP during embryonic development in a preparation isolated chicken inner ear. This work was performed using multiunit and single-unit extracellular recordings from the posterior semicircular canal nerve and the basilar papilla nerve. α,β-meATP, a P2X(More)
We performed intracellular and single-unit extracellular recordings of neurons from different regions of the basilar papilla in the isolated chicken inner ear. We compared the spontaneous activity and the response properties of these neurons in embryos at E15 versus posthatching animals at P1. The recordings were carried out from the apical (position 0) to(More)
Here, we report for the first time developmental changes in spontaneous activity and in response properties of single nerve fibers from the macular chick lagena. Such aspects are important in order to get insight into the functional role of the lagena which remains undetermined. For this purpose, we used intracellular and extracellular single-unit recording(More)
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