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N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been demonstrated to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms and cognitive impairment in humans. The NMDA receptor has been strongly implicated in memory, but research to date on the effects of NMDA antagonists has examined only some aspects of human memory functions. This study used a double-blind,(More)
BACKGROUND The two main constituents of cannabis, cannabidiol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviourally when administered in the laboratory. Street cannabis is known to contain varying levels of each cannabinoid. AIMS To study how the varying levels of cannabidiol and THC have an impact on the(More)
AIMS Recreational use of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine, is increasing. The present study aimed to examine both the acute and residual effects of this drug on cognitive function, dissociation and schizotypal symptomatology in recreational users. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS A parallel group design was used to compare 20(More)
BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug globally, and users are at increased risk of mental illnesses including psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Substance dependence and schizophrenia are both associated with dopaminergic dysfunction. It has been proposed, although never directly tested, that the link between cannabis use and(More)
BACKGROUND Addicts show both reward processing deficits and increased salience attribution to drug cues. However, no study to date has demonstrated that salience attribution to drug cues can directly modulate inferences of reward value to non-drug cues. Associative learning depends on salience: a more salient predictor of an outcome will 'overshadow' a less(More)
BACKGROUND It has recently been shown that acute alcohol globally impairs 'prospective memory' (PM)-remembering to do something in the future (Leitz et al. in Psychopharmacology 205:379-387, 2009). In healthy, sober individuals, simulating future events at encoding enhances PM performance. AIMS We therefore aimed to determine if future event simulation(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between cannabis use and psychosis. A variety of factors have been proposed to mediate an individual's vulnerability to the harmful effects of the drug, one of which is their psychosis proneness. We hypothesized that highly psychosis-prone individuals would report more marked psychotic experiences under(More)
Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when(More)
INTRODUCTION Preliminary research has indicated that recreational ketamine use may be associated with marked cognitive impairments and elevated psychopathological symptoms, although no study to date has determined how these are affected by differing frequencies of use or whether they are reversible on cessation of use. In this study we aimed to determine(More)
RATIONALE Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist that is increasingly being used as a recreational drug. Previous research has shown gross generalised verbal memory impairments persisting 3 days after ketamine use in chronic users, however episodic memory has not specifically investigated in this population. OBJECTIVE To determine(More)