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N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been demonstrated to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms and cognitive impairment in humans. The NMDA receptor has been strongly implicated in memory, but research to date on the effects of NMDA antagonists has examined only some aspects of human memory functions. This study used a double-blind,(More)
AIMS Recreational use of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine, is increasing. The present study aimed to examine both the acute and residual effects of this drug on cognitive function, dissociation and schizotypal symptomatology in recreational users. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS A parallel group design was used to compare 20(More)
INTRODUCTION Ketamine is attracting increasing research interest not only because of its powerful amnestic effects but also as a putative model of schizophrenia and as a substance with an expanding following of recreational users. OBJECTIVE This article reviews the existing literature on the effects of acute ketamine on the memory of healthy volunteers(More)
Worldwide cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when(More)
INTRODUCTION Preliminary research has indicated that recreational ketamine use may be associated with marked cognitive impairments and elevated psychopathological symptoms, although no study to date has determined how these are affected by differing frequencies of use or whether they are reversible on cessation of use. In this study we aimed to determine(More)
RATIONALE Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist that is increasingly being used as a recreational drug. Previous research has shown gross generalised verbal memory impairments persisting 3 days after ketamine use in chronic users, however episodic memory has not specifically investigated in this population. OBJECTIVE To determine(More)
Anandamide is a ligand of the endocannabinoid system. Animals show a depletion following repeated Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration but the effect of cannabis use on central nervous system levels of endocannabinoids has not been previously examined in humans. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide,(More)
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and regular use has been associated with reduced motivation, i.e. apathy. Regular long-term cannabis use has been associated with reduced dopamine synthesis capacity. The mesolimbic dopaminergic system mediates the processing of incentive stimuli by modifying their motivational value, which in turn(More)
RATIONALE Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has medical indications but is also used as a recreational drug. Previous research has found persisting cognitive and psychotogenic effects of ketamine in chronic abusers of this drug 3 days after an acute dose. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to investigate the effects of(More)
Cannabis contains various cannabinoids, two of which have almost opposing actions: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) is psychotomimetic, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) has antipsychotic effects. Hair samples were analysed to examine levels of Delta9-THC and CBD in 140 individuals. Three clear groups emerged: ;THC only', ;THC+CBD' and those with no(More)