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We used a dual-masking paradigm to study how contrast discrimination can be influenced by the presence of adjacent stimuli. The task of the observer was to detect a target superimposed on a pedestal in the presence of flankers. The flankers (i) reduce the target threshold at zero pedestal contrast, (ii) shift the target threshold versus pedestal contrast(More)
We measured the effect of phase coherence on the detectability of a chain of Gabor patches. The stimuli were elongated patterns consisting of 1-8 vertical Gabor patches, aligned vertically and either in phase or 180 deg out of phase from their immediate neighbors. In the fovea, the phase configuration had no effect on detection threshold, suggesting a(More)
It is well-established that exposure to emotionally laden events initiates secretion of the arousal-related hormone epinephrine in the periphery. These neuroendocrine changes and the subsequent increase in peripheral physiological output play an integral role in modulating brain systems involved in memory formation. The impermeability of the blood brain(More)
The crystal structure of pyruvate phosphate dikinase, a histidyl multiphosphotransfer enzyme that synthesizes adenosine triphosphate, reveals a three-domain molecule in which the phosphohistidine domain is flanked by the nucleotide and the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate domains, with the two substrate binding sites approximately 45 angstroms apart. The modes(More)
Crystals of pyruvate phosphate dikinase in complex with a substrate analogue inhibitor, phosphonopyruvate (K(i) = 3 microM), have been obtained in the presence of Mg(2+). The structure has been determined and refined at 2.2 A resolution, revealing that the Mg(2+)-bound phosphonopyruvate binds in the alpha/beta-barrel's central channel, at the C-termini of(More)
Phosphonopyruvate (P-pyr) hydrolase (PPH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) mutase/isocitrate lyase (PEPM/ICL) superfamily, hydrolyzes P-pyr and shares the highest sequence identity and functional similarity with PEPM. Recombinant PPH from Variovorax sp. Pal2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Analytical gel filtration(More)
Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) catalyzes the reversible conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), AMP, and Pi to pyruvate and ATP. The enzyme contains two remotely located reaction centers: the nucleotide partial reaction takes place at the N-terminal domain, and the PEP/pyruvate partial reaction takes place at the C-terminal domain. A central domain,(More)
Twenty-eight right-handed, young adults participated in a sensory testing experiment to evaluate spatial resolution at 10 positionally matched sites on the right- and left-hand sides of the face. An adaptive psychophysical (i.e. tracking) procedure was used to estimate the threshold spatial separation for perceiving two points of contact at each site.(More)
Phosphonates allow certain organisms to thrive in otherwise hostile environments, and 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) is a precursor of many cellular phosphonates. AEP transaminase (AEPT) is an enzyme essential to phosphonate synthesis and degradation pathways. The crystal structure of AEP transaminase was determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction(More)
PURPOSE This study evaluated a novel neurosensory test based on letter recognition developed for the assessment of spatial acuity of the tongue. PATIENTS AND METHODS An up-down tracking procedure was used to estimate the threshold height for the recognition of embossed letters of the alphabet examined by the tongue tip. The 48 stimuli consisted of acrylic(More)