Celia Abolnik

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Genetic comparisons were made of the fusion protein sequences of 155 Newcastle disease virus isolates collected in South Africa between 1990 and 2002. Their evolutionary relationships and origins are described. All of the lentogenic field isolates were shown to be derived from commercial vaccines. No true South African lentogenic wild type strain was(More)
Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. Here we used a continental-scale dataset, collected in tropical wetlands of 15 African countries, to test the relative roles of a range of ecological factors on(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 reemerged in ostriches in South Africa during 2006, and a low-pathogenic AI H5N2 virus was also isolated. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization was performed to determine whether the outbreak strains were genetically derived from the supposedly eradicated Eastern Cape ostrich outbreak HPAI H5N2 strain of(More)
 The genomic sequences of 3 strains of Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) (Neethling type) were compared to determine molecular differences, viz. the South African vaccine strain (LW), a virulent field-strain from a recent outbreak in South Africa (LD), and the virulent Kenyan 2490 strain (LK). A comparison between the virulent field isolates indicates that in(More)
Avian influenza caused infection and spread throughout Nigeria in 2006. Carcass samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, trachea and intestine) from the different regions of Nigeria were processed for virus isolation. Infective allantoic fluids were tested for avian influenza viruses (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus using monospecific antisera. Thirty-five(More)
In 2004, South Africa experienced its first recorded outbreak of a highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (HPNAI) viral strain of the H5N2 subtype in ostriches in the Eastern Cape province. The traditional ostrich-farming areas in the Western Cape province report almost yearly outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in ostriches, which(More)
Newcastle disease (ND) is a serious neurological and respiratory disease of poultry that affects all types of birds but has traditionally not caused symptoms in wild aquatic birds, the natural hosts. In the late 1990s, a new genotype, viz. 5d that is pathogenic to all types of birds, including waterfowl, arose in China and has since spread from East Asia(More)
Recent reports of the detection of the zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 viruses in healthy pigeons have again put the spotlight on the potential role of pigeons and doves in the transmission of avian influenza between infected poultry and humans. A surge in studies followed the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 epidemic, and(More)
A paramyxovirus with a thermostability of 60 min (typical of velogenic viruses) and a mean death time of > 90 h (typical of lentogenic viruses) was isolated from layers near Mooi River, South Africa. Our results, based on comparative nucleotide sequence data indicated that the virus is pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1), a variant of Newcastle disease virus.(More)
The first recorded outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in South African chickens (low pathogenicity H6N2) occurred at Camperdown, KwaZulu/Natal Province (KZN) in June 2002. To determine the source of the outbreak, we defined the phylogenetic relationships between various H6N2 isolates, and the previously unpublished gene sequences of an H6N8 virus isolated in(More)