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BACKGROUND The optimal dose and duration of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are controversial. OBJECTIVE To determine if a one-third dose (1/3D) is not inferior to the full dose (FD), if 1 yr of maintenance is not inferior to 3 yr of maintenance, and if 1/3D and 1 yr of maintenance(More)
BACKGROUND Intravesical chemotherapy and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) reduce the recurrence rate in patients with stage Ta T1 urothelial bladder cancer; however, the benefit of BCG relative to chemotherapy for long-term end points is controversial, especially in intermediate-risk patients. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to compare the long-term(More)
BACKGROUND Although bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has proven highly effective in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), but it can cause severe local and systemic side effects. OBJECTIVES The objective was to determine whether reducing the dose or duration of BCG was associated with fewer side effects. Efficacy comparisons of one-third dose versus(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of prophylactic breast irradiation in reducing the incidence and severity of bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia and breast pain. METHODS AND MATERIALS In all, 106 men with prostate cancer (T1b-T4/Nx/M0) and no current gynecomastia/breast pain were enrolled in this randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind,(More)
PURPOSE New treatment modalities for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have considerably altered the decision making process in daily clinical practice. Guidelines provide a framework for treatment choice but leave much room for physician personal opinions. We identified and quantified determinants of treatment choice for BPH among urologists focusing on(More)
PURPOSE Uroflowmetry has become a routine investigation in patients with symptoms of the lower urinary tract. Little is known about the variation in the use of uroflowmetry and in the interpretation of its outcomes. We investigated the diagnostic value of uroflowmetry as a freestanding test, and examined the interobserver and intra-observer variation in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the prevalence of nocturia in general practice and to determine which factors are associated with nocturia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Data were collected from 3048 elderly men, who completed a questionnaire that was sent to every man aged 55-75 years in 21 general practices in Maastricht (the Netherlands). The symptom of nocturia was(More)
AIMS UroVysion(®) is a four-target fluorescence in situ hybridization technique for the detection of urothelial carcinoma (UC) in urinary cytology. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the UC detection rate of a modified UroVysion test in patients with equivocal urinary cytology. The modification comprised the addition of a cytological(More)
OBJECTIVES Several animal studies have shown that bladder performance improves as a result of diuresis. Whether increased urine output also has beneficial effects on elderly male bladder function and lower urinary tract symptoms is unknown. METHODS We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial of 141 men, 55 to 75 years of age, with moderate lower(More)