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In the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease, apomorphine has an established place as a back-up therapy if other antiparkinsonian drugs, such as levodopa and oral dopamine agonists, have not controlled the existing response fluctuations. Apomorphine is a synthetic derivative of morphine, with a totally distinct pharmacological profile. It is a very(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify determinants for the discontinuation of non-ergoline dopamine agonist (DA) treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to identify genetic determinants in genes encoding dopamine receptor (DR)D2 and DRD3 in a exploratory analysis. METHODS Patients included were first-time users of the non-ergoline DA ropinirole or(More)
BACKGROUND Since bacteria embedded in biofilms are far more difficult to eradicate than planktonic infections, it would be useful to know whether certain Staphylococcus aureus lineages are especially involved in strong biofilm formation. For this reason, in vitro biofilm formation of 228 clinical S. aureus isolates of distinct clonal lineages was(More)
AIM To investigate the association between the use of incretin agents and the risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS A retrospective population-based cohort study, using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 2007-2012, was conducted. Patients (n = 182 428) with at least one non-insulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) prescription and aged ≥18 years(More)
There are a number of effective but highly toxic drugs that exhibit a narrow therapeutic index and marked interpatient pharmacokinetic variability. Individualized therapy with such drugs requires therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to obtain the desired clinical effects safely. Cost-effectiveness analysis in health care is still at an early stage of(More)
INTRODUCTION Dysfunction of brain dopamine systems is involved in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Challenge studies with dopamine receptor agonists have been performed to assess dopamine receptor functioning, classically using the release of growth hormone (GH) from the hindbrain as primary outcome measure. The objective of the current study was to(More)
BACKGROUND Sialorrhea affects approximately 75% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Sialorrhea is often treated with anticholinergics, but central side effects limit their usefulness. Glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium bromide) is an anticholinergic drug with a quaternary ammonium structure not able to cross the blood-brain barrier in considerable amounts.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the bioavailability of higher oral doses of methotrexate (MTX) in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS A pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in 15 patients with RA taking a stable dose of MTX (> or = 25 mg weekly). Separated by 2 weeks, a pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in each patient after oral and(More)
To date, the interchangeability of generic drugs has only been investigated for a limited number of medicines. The objective of this study was to investigate generic-generic drug interchangeability in a large subset of generic formulations in order to cover a broad spectrum of drugs. Orally administered drugs for investigation in this study were selected(More)
Maximum a posteriori Bayesian (MAPB) pharmacokinetic parameter estimation is an accurate and flexible method of estimating individual pharmacokinetic parameters using individual blood concentrations and prior information. In the past decade, many studies have developed optimal sampling strategies to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters as accurately as(More)