Cedric R. Clapier

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The packaging of chromosomal DNA by nucleosomes condenses and organizes the genome, but occludes many regulatory DNA elements. However, this constraint also allows nucleosomes and other chromatin components to actively participate in the regulation of transcription, chromosome segregation, DNA replication, and DNA repair. To enable dynamic access to(More)
Energy-dependent nucleosome remodeling emerges as a key process endowing chromatin with dynamic properties. However, the principles by which remodeling ATPases interact with their nucleosome substrate to alter histone-DNA interactions are only poorly understood. We have identified a substrate recognition domain in the C-terminal half of the remodeling(More)
Mutations in Drosophila ISWI, a member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of chromatin remodeling ATPases, alter the global architecture of the male X chromosome. The transcription of genes on this chromosome is increased 2-fold relative to females due to dosage compensation, a process involving the acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16). Here we show that(More)
Mi-2 and ISWI, two members of the Snf2 superfamily of ATPases, reside in separate ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes. These complexes differ in their biochemical properties and are believed to perform distinct functions in the cell. We have compared the remodelling activity of recombinant Drosophila Mi-2 (dMi-2) with that of recombinant ISWI.(More)
Negative-strand RNA viruses condense their genome into a helical nucleoprotein-RNA complex, the nucleocapsid, which is packed into virions and serves as a template for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. The crystal structure of a recombinant rabies virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex, organized in an undecameric ring, has been determined at 3.5 angstrom(More)
The ATPase ISWI is a subunit of several distinct nucleosome remodeling complexes that increase the accessibility of DNA in chromatin. We found that the isolated ISWI protein itself was able to carry out nucleosome remodeling, nucleosome rearrangement, and chromatin assembly reactions. The ATPase activity of ISWI was stimulated by nucleosomes but not by free(More)
The ATPase ISWI can be considered the catalytic core of several multiprotein nucleosome remodeling machines. Alone or in the context of nucleosome remodeling factor, the chromatin accessibility complex (CHRAC), or ACF, ISWI catalyzes a number of ATP-dependent transitions of chromatin structure that are currently best explained by its ability to induce(More)
Chromatin-remodelling complexes (CRCs) mobilize nucleosomes to mediate the access of DNA-binding factors to their sites in vivo. These CRCs contain a catalytic subunit that bears an ATPase/DNA-translocase domain and flanking regions that bind nucleosomal epitopes. A central question is whether and how these flanking regions regulate ATP hydrolysis or the(More)
The ATPase ISWI is the catalytic core of several nucleosome remodeling complexes, which are able to alter histone-DNA interactions within nucleosomes such that the sliding of histone octamers on DNA is facilitated. Dynamic nucleosome repositioning may be involved in the assembly of chromatin with regularly spaced nucleosomes and accessible regulatory(More)
We determined the 2.45 A crystal structure of the nucleosome core particle from Drosophila melanogaster and compared it to that of Xenopus laevis bound to the identical 147 base-pair DNA fragment derived from human alpha-satellite DNA. Differences between the two structures primarily reflect 16 amino acid substitutions between species, 15 of which are in(More)