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We review evidence that cloned (or uncloned) populations of most RNA viruses do not consist of a single genome species of defined sequence, but rather of heterogeneous mixtures of related genomes (quasispecies). Due to very high mutation rates, genomes of a quasispecies virus population share a consensus sequence but differ from each other and from the(More)
The RNAse A mismatch cleavage method was used to analyze genomic variability in RNA and DNA systems. However, there is no method which relates the digestion patterns observed to the extent of genetic variation. Here we report computer simulations which provide a simple estimator of genetic distances from the comparison of RNAse A digestion patterns. The(More)
In order to study the evolution in vivo of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in patients with normal clinical evolution, six individuals were selected from a group of 46 patients followed for 1 to 4 years. Patients were selected not by clinical progression characteristics but on the basis of virus genetic variability, as analysed by heteroduplex(More)
BACKGROUND Various patterns of HIV-1 disease progression are described in clinical practice and in research. There is a need to assess the specificity of commonly used definitions of long term non-progressor (LTNP) elite controllers (LTNP-EC), viremic controllers (LTNP-VC), and viremic non controllers (LTNP-NC), as well as of chronic progressors (P) and(More)
The use of two genetic markers has permitted the analysis of the distribution of two different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants in patients of the homosexual (HO) and intravenous drug user (IDU) groups in distinct European countries. In Germany, Holland, and Italy the variants circulating in each risk group of HO and IDU patients were(More)
The complete genetic information contained in the influenza virus RNA segment 7 of the A/Bangkok/1/79 (H3N2) strain has been cloned by in vitro synthesis of the complementary dsDNA and its insertion into plasmid pBR322. The nucleotide sequence of the viral RNA segment has been determined from the cDNA insert. It is 1027 nucleotides long, and contains two(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) controllers have the striking ability to maintain viremia at extremely low or undetectable levels without antiretroviral treatment. Even though these patients have been widely studied, information about clinical outcomes, especially concerning to non-AIDS-defining events (nADEs), is scarce. We have analyzed the(More)
Resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to antiretroviral agents results from target gene mutation within the pol gene, which encodes the viral protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase. We speculated that mutations in genes other that the drug target could lead to drug resistance. For this purpose, the p1-p6(gag)-p6(pol) region(More)
We have applied the RNase A mismatch cleavage method to analyze genetic variability in RNA viruses by using influenza virus as a model system. Uniformly labeled RNA probes synthesized from a cloned hemagglutinin gene of a given viral strain were hybridized to RNA isolated from other strains of characterized or uncharacterized genetic composition. The(More)
The nucleotide sequences of two pol gene regions (codons 41 to 108 and 181 to 219 of reverse transcriptase) of 60 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes obtained directly from primary lymphocytes from infected individuals are reported. In addition, the mutant spectra of several quasispecies have been sampled by repetitive sequencing of molecular clones(More)