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In this paper we present a new method for analysing molecular evolution in homologous genes based on a general stationary Markov process. The elaborate statistical analysis necessary to apply the method effectively has been performed using Monte Carlo techniques. We have applied our method to the silent third position of the codon of the five mitochondrial(More)
ACNUC is a database structure and retrieval software for use with either the GenBank or EMBL nucleic acid sequence data collections. The nucleotide and textual data furnished by both collections are each restructured into a database that allows sequence retrieval on a multi-criterion basis. The main selection criteria are: species (or higher order taxon),(More)
Abundant lectin-related proteins found in common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been shown to confer resistance against the larvae of a number of bruchid species. Genes encoding for these proteins are members of the lectin multigene family, the most representative components being arcelins, phytohemagglutinins and alpha-amylase inhibitors. Arcelins(More)
Homologous genes are grouped into families whose evolution may be different in the various organisms. For the variety of the processes and the well-known mechanism of gene gain and gene loss, which takes place in genome evolution, we deal in comparative analyses with a "one-to-many" or a "many-to-many" relationship between homologous genes going from(More)
To investigate the integrated evolution of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in the eukaryotic cell, we have focused our attention on OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) gene families which encode proteins involved in the main mitochondrial function. The present study reports the phylogenetic analysis of two OXPHOS gene families: ATP synthase subunit c (or(More)
Southern Italy is an endemic area for HAV infection contributing to the majority of Italian hepatitis A cases. Using molecular analysis, HAV strains have been classified in distinct genotypes and subgenotypes. To characterize HAV wild-type strains circulating in Southern Italy, sequence analysis of VP3-VP1 and VP1/2A junction regions of HAV isolates(More)
The availability of genomic clones representative of the T-cell receptor constant gamma (TRGC) ovine genes enabled us to demonstrate, by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on cattle and sheep metaphases, the presence of two T-cell receptor gamma (TRG1@ and TRG2@) paralogous loci separated by at least five chromosomal bands on chromosome 4. Only TRG1@(More)
gammadelta T cells commonly account for 0.5%-5% of human (gammadelta low species) circulating T cells, whereas they are very common in chickens, and they may account for >70% of peripheral cells in ruminants (gammadelta high species). We have previously reported the ovine TRG2@ locus structure, the first complete physical map of any ruminant animal TCR(More)
Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) gene evolution in various animals, plants, and bacteria was evaluated by a general stationary Markov model. The evolutionary process proved to be unexpectedly regular even for a time span as long as that between the divergence of prokaryotes from eukaryotes. This enabled us to draw phylogenetic trees for species whose(More)