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We present a new methodology to detect and characterize sleep spindles (SSs), based on the nonlinear algorithms, empirical-mode decomposition, and Hilbert-Huang transform, which provide adequate temporal and frequency resolutions in the electroencephalographic analysis. In addition, the application of fuzzy logic allows to emulate expert's procedures.(More)
Evoked potentials provide noninvasive measures of nerve transmission and CNS functioning. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) show dramatic changes in infancy, largely as a result of progressive myelination. Because iron is required for normal myelination, pathway transmission in these sensory systems might be affected by(More)
The emergence of sleep states is one of the most significant aspects of development. Descriptions of both neonatal and late fetal behavior and studies on the organization of sleep have shown that fetus and newborns exhibit spontaneously discrete and cyclic patterns of active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS). Human fetuses and neonates sleep most of their(More)
A neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) of sleep-wake states and stages has been developed for healthy infants of ages 6 mo and onward. The NFC takes five input patterns previously identified on 20-s epochs from polysomnographic recordings and assigns them to one out of five possible classes: Wakefulness, REM-Sleep, Non-REM Sleep Stage 1, Stage 2, and Stage 3-4. The(More)
An automated system for sleep spindles detection within EEG background activity, combining two different approaches, is presented. The first approach applies detection criteria on the sigma-band filtered EEG signal, including fuzzy thresholds. The second approach mimics an expert's procedure. A sleep spindle detection is validated if both approaches agree.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of iron-deficiency anemia on the development of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep stages, as indexed by sleep spindles. STUDY DESIGN Patterns of sleep spindles during NREM sleep stages 2 and 3-4 (slow-wave-sleep, SWS) were compared in 26 otherwise healthy 6-month-old Chilean infants with iron-deficiency anemia and 18(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the long-term effects of iron deficiency on the neural correlates of recognition memory. STUDY DESIGN Non-anemic control participants (n=93) and 116 otherwise healthy formerly iron-deficient anemic Chilean children were selected from a larger longitudinal study. Participants were identified at 6, 12, or 18 months as iron-deficient(More)
The highest prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy coincides with a time of rapid changes in sleep organization. Since IDA in infancy is associated with long-lasting neurofunctional effects despite iron treatment, the normal development of sleep patterns might be affected. Night polysomnographic recordings were performed in 55 healthy 4-y-old(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy on executive functioning at age 10 years, specifically inhibitory control on the Go/No-Go task. We predicted that children who had IDA in infancy would show poorer inhibitory control. METHOD We assessed cognitive inhibitory control in 132 Chilean children (mean(More)