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We present a new methodology to detect and characterize sleep spindles (SSs), based on the nonlinear algorithms, empirical-mode decomposition, and Hilbert-Huang transform, which provide adequate temporal and frequency resolutions in the electroencephalographic analysis. In addition, the application of fuzzy logic allows to emulate expert's procedures.(More)
The emergence of sleep states is one of the most significant aspects of development. Descriptions of both neonatal and late fetal behavior and studies on the organization of sleep have shown that fetus and newborns exhibit spontaneously discrete and cyclic patterns of active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS). Human fetuses and neonates sleep most of their(More)
Nocturnal sleep patterns may be a contributing factor for the epidemic of obesity. Epidemiologic ana experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction is an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Moreover, sleep restriction is significantly associated with incidence and prevalence of obesity and several non-transmissible chronic(More)
Evoked potentials provide noninvasive measures of nerve transmission and CNS functioning. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) show dramatic changes in infancy, largely as a result of progressive myelination. Because iron is required for normal myelination, pathway transmission in these sensory systems might be affected by(More)
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) continues to be the most common single nutrient deficiency in the world. An estimated 20-25% of the world's infants have IDA, with at least as many having iron deficiency without anemia. Infants are at particular risk due to rapid growth and limited dietary sources of iron. We found that infants with IDA showed different motor(More)
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a very common nutritional problem that alters motor activity. The aim of this study was to compare 24-h motor activity in the home in healthy 6-month-old infants with and without IDA. Activity was assessed via actigraphs on the leg during 24 continuous hours in 17 Chilean infants with IDA and 18 with normal hemoglobin levels.(More)
A neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) of sleep-wake states and stages has been developed for healthy infants of ages 6 mo and onward. The NFC takes five input patterns previously identified on 20-s epochs from polysomnographic recordings and assigns them to one out of five possible classes: Wakefulness, REM-Sleep, Non-REM Sleep Stage 1, Stage 2, and Stage 3-4. The(More)
INTRODUCTION Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is recognized to have long-lasting effects on neurodevelopment, but there is little research on neuroendocrine systems. METHODS This study examined the effects of IDA in early or later infancy on plasma cortisol and prolactin stress-response patterns for 1 h after a venipuncture and catheter placement in 10-y-old(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy on executive functioning at age 10 years, specifically inhibitory control on the Go/No-Go task. We predicted that children who had IDA in infancy would show poorer inhibitory control. METHOD We assessed cognitive inhibitory control in 132 Chilean children (mean(More)
With the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep was no longer considered a homogeneous state of passive rest for the brain. On the contrary, sleep, and especially REM sleep, appeared as an active condition of intense cerebral activity. The fact that we get large amounts of sleep in early life suggested that sleep may play a role in brain(More)