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The ability to regulate emotions is an important part of adaptive functioning in society. Advances in cognitive and affective neuroscience and biological psychiatry have facilitated examination of neural systems that may be important for emotion regulation. In this critical review we first develop a neural model of emotion regulation that includes neural(More)
In this study we examined the development of three action monitoring event-related potentials (ERPs) - the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne), error positivity (P(E)) and the N2 - and estimated their neural sources. These ERPs were recorded during a flanker task in the following groups: early adolescents (mean age = 12 years), late adolescents (mean age = 16(More)
BACKGROUND Although reward processing is considered an important part of affective functioning, few studies have investigated reward-related decisions or responses in young people with affective disorders. Depression is postulated to involve decreased activity in reward-related affective systems. METHODS Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),(More)
BACKGROUND In this study we used event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization analyses to track the time course of neural activity underlying response monitoring in children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder compared to age-matched low-risk normal controls. METHODS High-density ERPs were examined following errors on a flanker task from 12(More)
This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and age on performance of an emotional working memory task designed to investigate attentional control processes in the context of emotion. Participants included children, adolescents, and adults (8-30 years old). They performed the Emotional Face N-Back (EFNBACK) task, a modified n-back working memory task(More)
The goal of this study was to examine some of the mechanisms underlying emotion regulation in childhood affective disorders by examining the impact of distracting emotional information during performance on a working memory task ("Emotional n-back" or E-n-back). The sample included 75 children (38 girls and 37 boys) between 8 and 16 years of age meeting(More)
INTRODUCTION There are no known biological measures that accurately predict future development of psychiatric disorders in individual at-risk adolescents. We investigated whether machine learning and fMRI could help to: 1. differentiate healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I psychiatric disorders from healthy(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show deficits in processing of facial emotions that persist beyond recovery and cessation of treatment. Abnormalities in neural areas supporting attentional control and emotion processing in remitted depressed (rMDD) patients suggests that there may be enduring, trait-like abnormalities in key neural(More)
The dot-probe task has been widely used in research to produce an index of biased attention based on reaction times (RTs). Despite its popularity, very few published studies have examined psychometric properties of the task, including test-retest reliability, and no previous study has examined reliability in clinically anxious samples or systematically(More)
BACKGROUND Anxious youth have shown altered behavioral performance on the dot-probe task, but neural activation patterns provoked by the task remain poorly understood. In particular, neural mechanisms of threat disengagement, a clinically relevant construct, have been inadequately explored. METHOD During fMRI acquisition, 121 youth (ages 9-13; 90 with(More)