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BACKGROUND In June 2004, the National Cancer Institute and the Drug Information Association co-sponsored the conference, "Improving the Measurement of Health Outcomes through the Applications of Item Response Theory (IRT) Modeling: Exploration of Item Banks and Computer-Adaptive Assessment." A component of the conference was presentation of a psychometric(More)
BACKGROUND A variety of factors are predictors of breast cancer risk. However, the studies conducted to establish these risk factors have rarely included African American women. The few studies with sufficient numbers of African-American women suggest that risk factors for breast cancer among African-American women are similar to those of white women.(More)
Identifying impairments in the capacity to make and execute decisions is critical to the assessment and remediation of elder self-neglect. Few capacity assessment tools are available for use outside of healthcare settings, and none have been validated in the context of elder self-neglect. Health and social services professionals are in need of validated(More)
OBJECTIVE To introduce this supplemental issue on measurement within health services research by using the population of U.S. veterans as an illustrative example of population and system influences on measurement quality. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Measurement quality may be affected by differences in demographic characteristics, illness burden, psychological(More)
PURPOSE Medical schools are increasingly incorporating opportunities for reflection into their curricula. However, little is known about the cognitive and/or emotional processes that occur when learners participate in activities designed to promote reflection. The purpose of this study was to identify and elucidate those processes. METHOD In 2008, the(More)
Increasing the cultural competence of physicians is one means of responding to demographic changes in the USA, as well as reducing health disparities. However, in spite of the development and implementation of cultural competence training programs, little is known about the ways cultural competence manifests itself in medical encounters. This paper will(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To test unidimensionality and local independence of a set of shoulder functional status (SFS) items, develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) of the items using a rating scale item response theory model (RSM), and compare discriminant validity of measures generated using all items (theta(IRT)) and measures generated using the(More)
INTRODUCTION/AIMS Implicit bias can impact physician-patient interactions, alter treatment recommendations, and perpetuate health disparities. Medical educators need methods for raising student awareness about the impact of bias on medical care. SETTING Seventy-two third-year medical student volunteers participated in facilitated small group discussions(More)
Patient-centered cancer care has become a priority in the oncology field. Increasing efforts to train oncologists in communication skills have led to a growing literature on patient-centered cancer education. In addition, systems approaches have led to an increased emphasis on the concept of teams as an organizing framework for cancer care. In this essay,(More)
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience a range of symptoms typically labeled "spasticity." Previous efforts to develop assessment tools that measure spasticity have failed to represent the experiences of persons who live with the condition. The purpose of this multicenter study was to develop an instrument that measures the impact of(More)