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Seasonal synchronization based on day length (photoperiod) allows organisms to anticipate environmental change. Photoperiodic decoding relies on circadian clocks, but the underlying molecular pathways have remained elusive [1]. In mammals and birds, photoperiodic responses depend crucially on expression of thyrotrophin β subunit RNA (TSHβ) in the pars(More)
Circadian timekeeping is a ubiquitous feature of all eukaryotes which allows for the imposition of a biologically appropriate temporal architecture on an animal's physiology, behavior and metabolism. There is growing evidence that in mammals the processes of circadian timing are under the influence of the immune system. Such a role for the neuroimmune(More)
Biological rhythms that oscillate with periods close to 24 h (circadian cycles) are pervasive features of mammalian physiology, facilitating entrainment to the 24 h cycle generated by the rotation of the Earth. In the absence of environmental time cues, circadian rhythms default to their endogenous period called tau, or the free-running period. This(More)
Methionine restriction (MR) decreases body weight and adiposity and improves glucose homeostasis in rodents. Similar to caloric restriction, MR extends lifespan, but is accompanied by increased food intake and energy expenditure. Most studies have examined MR in young animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of MR to reverse(More)
Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a network of transcriptional and translational loops in the expression of a panel of clock genes in various brain and peripheral sites. Many of the output rhythms controlled by this system are significantly affected by ageing, although the mechanisms of age-related circadian dysfunction remain opaque. The aim of(More)
Artificial light decreases the amplitude of daily rhythms in human lifestyle principally by permitting activity and food intake to occur during hours of darkness, and allowing day-time activity to occur in dim light, indoors. Endogenous circadian timing mechanisms that oscillate with a period of 24 h have evolved to ensure physiology is synchronized with(More)
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY The assessment of belief that equine conformation is associated with performance and durability is a fundamental concept of horsemanship. Surprisingly, there is almost no quantitative evidence to support these beliefs. OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence and heritability of conformational traits in Thoroughbred yearlings, and(More)
There is increasing interest in ethane (C(2)H(6)) in exhaled breath as a non-invasive marker of oxidative stress (OS) and thereby a potential indicator of disease. However, the lack of real-time measurement techniques has limited progress in the field. Here we report on a novel Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer (TDLS) applied to the analysis of exhaled(More)
Adaptive immunity in homeotherms depends greatly on CD4+ Th cells which release cytokines in response to specific antigen stimulation. Whilst bony fish and poikilothermic tetrapods possess cells that express TcR and CD4-related genes (that exist in two forms in teleost fish; termed CD4-1 and CD4-2), to date there is no unequivocal demonstration that cells(More)