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Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a network of transcriptional and translational loops in the expression of a panel of clock genes in various brain and peripheral sites. Many of the output rhythms controlled by this system are significantly affected by ageing, although the mechanisms of age-related circadian dysfunction remain opaque. The aim of(More)
Artificial light decreases the amplitude of daily rhythms in human lifestyle principally by permitting activity and food intake to occur during hours of darkness, and allowing day-time activity to occur in dim light, indoors. Endogenous circadian timing mechanisms that oscillate with a period of 24 h have evolved to ensure physiology is synchronized with(More)
Methionine restriction (MR) decreases body weight and adiposity and improves glucose homeostasis in rodents. Similar to caloric restriction, MR extends lifespan, but is accompanied by increased food intake and energy expenditure. Most studies have examined MR in young animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of MR to reverse(More)
Seasonal synchronization based on day length (photoperiod) allows organisms to anticipate environmental change. Photoperiodic decoding relies on circadian clocks, but the underlying molecular pathways have remained elusive [1]. In mammals and birds, photoperiodic responses depend crucially on expression of thyrotrophin β subunit RNA (TSHβ) in the pars(More)
The Earth's solar orbit induces annual climatic changes challenging to survival. Many animals have evolved to cope with seasonal variability through compensatory annual changes in their physiology and behavior, which involve innate long-term timing and photoperiodic synchronization to anticipate the environmental seasonal cycles. Here we considered the(More)
Biological rhythms that oscillate with periods close to 24 h (circadian cycles) are pervasive features of mammalian physiology, facilitating entrainment to the 24 h cycle generated by the rotation of the Earth. In the absence of environmental time cues, circadian rhythms default to their endogenous period called tau, or the free-running period. This(More)
In this paper, we present a radiotelemetry sensor, designed as a lab-in-a-pill, which incorporates a two-channel microfabricated sensor platform for real-time measurements of temperature and pH. These two parameters have potential application for use in remote biological sensing (for example they may be used as markers that reflect the physiological(More)
Adaptive immunity in homeotherms depends greatly on CD4+ Th cells which release cytokines in response to specific antigen stimulation. Whilst bony fish and poikilothermic tetrapods possess cells that express TcR and CD4-related genes (that exist in two forms in teleost fish; termed CD4-1 and CD4-2), to date there is no unequivocal demonstration that cells(More)
We present a first implementation of optical-frequency-comb-based rapid trace gas detection in the molecular fingerprint region in the mid-infrared. Near-real-time acquisition of broadband absorption spectra with 0.0056 cm 1 maximum resolution is demonstrated using a frequency comb Fourier transform spectrometer which operates in the 2100-to-3700-cm 1(More)