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The development of antifilarial antibody responses is a characteristic feature of infection with filarial parasites. It should be possible to exploit this fact to develop tools to monitor the progress of the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF); however, assays based on parasite extracts suffer from a number of limitations, including the(More)
To challenge the concept of protective immunity in lymphatic filariasis, 19 adult residents of a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic island who had been diagnosed 17 years earlier as putatively immune endemic normals (PI/EN) were reexamined. Even with continued exposure to infection, all 19 had maintained their apparent infection-free status. Studies to define the(More)
On an island in which bancroftian filariasis is endemic, 29 microfilaremic and 16 "endemic normal" (EN) subjects initially studied in 1974-1975 were reevaluated 17 years later. Eleven persons remained microfilaremic, whereas 18 had cleared both microfilaremia and antigenemia. Despite decreased infection on the island, antibody levels remained relatively(More)
BACKGROUND Elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis is targeted for 2020. Given the coincident Loa loa infections in Central Africa and the potential for drug resistance development, the need for new microfilaricides and macrofilaricides has never been greater. With the genomes of L. loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, and Brugia(More)
The cytokine profiles of PBMC obtained from individuals "immune" to Onchocerca volvulus infection were compared to those from infected individuals. The immune individuals had significantly higher levels of both IL-2 and IL-5 in response to parasite Ag than did those individuals with active infection (mean IL-2 = 1.3 and 0.138 U/ml, respectively; mean IL-5 =(More)
To determine the role that CTLA-4 might play in mediating the diminished parasite Ag-specific T cell responsiveness that is characteristically seen in filaria-infected patients, several study populations and methods were used. First, quantitative assessment of mRNA expression determined that PBMC from uninfected adolescents exposed in utero to microfilarial(More)
Improved methods are needed for field diagnosis of onchocerciasis, to support efforts aimed at elimination of the disease. A rapid-format card test was evaluated that detects IgG4 antibodies to recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigen Ov16 with serum samples from patients with onchocerciasis and with various types of control serum samples. The sensitivity of(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-resistance testing plays a critical role in selection of optimal treatment regimens for HIV infected individuals. Laboratories performing testing must implement quality control measures including external quality assessment. OBJECTIVES The ENVA7 Programme (2007) was organised by QCMD to assess the performance of laboratories testing for(More)
BACKGROUND It is increasingly recognized that host genetic factors may play an important role in determining the outcome of filarial infections. To test this hypothesis in bancroftian lymphatic filariasis, pedigree data were collected twice during an 18-year period from an isolated Polynesian population living on a Pacific island where lymphatic filariasis(More)
BACKGROUND Antibody (Ab) to the Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) infective larval (L3) antigen Wb123, using a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS) assay, has been shown to be a species-specific, early marker of infection developed for potential use as a surveillance tool following transmission interruption post mass drug administration. To examine its(More)