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Determining whether a person with stroke has reached their full potential for recovery is difficult. While techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and MRI have some prognostic value, their role in rehabilitation is undefined. This study used TMS and MRI to determine which factors predict functional potential, defined as an individual's(More)
Imagine you are at an intersection, waiting for the traffic lights. They turn green, and you are about to press the gas pedal, when suddenly a cyclist swerves into your lane. Before your foot has actually moved, you have to rapidly prevent it from moving as planned. This example highlights the everyday function of stopping an action, a form of response(More)
In studies of volitional inhibition, successful task performance usually requires the prevention of all movement. In reality, movements are selectively prevented in the presence of global motor output. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to prevent one movement while concurrently executing another, referred to as selective inhibition. In(More)
Volitional inhibition is the voluntary prevention of a prepared movement. Here we ask whether primary motor cortex (M1) is a site of convergence of cortical activity associated with movement preparation and volitional inhibition. Volitional inhibition was studied by presenting a stop signal before execution of an anticipated response that requires a key(More)
Previous studies have shown that intracortical inhibition (ICI) plays an important role in shaping the output from primary motor cortex (M1). This study explored the muscle specificity and temporal modulation of ICI during the performance of a phasic index finger flexion task. Fifteen subjects were asked to rest their dominant hand on a computer mouse and(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of the modulation of corticospinal and segmental excitability during actual and imagined movement of a single digit. METHODS Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were evoked in abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) of the(More)
Task-specific focal dystonia is thought to have a neurological basis where stereotypical synchronous inputs and maladaptive plasticity play a role. As afferent input is a powerful driver of cortical reorganization, we propose that a period of asynchronous afferent stimulation may reverse maladaptive cortical changes and alleviate symptoms. Using(More)
An important aspect of cognitive control is the ability to respond with restraint. Here, we modeled this experimentally by measuring the degree of response slowing that occurs when people respond to an imperative stimulus in a context where they might suddenly need to stop the initiated response compared with a context in which they do not need to stop. We(More)
After stroke, the function of primary motor cortex (M1) between the hemispheres may become unbalanced. Techniques that promote a re-balancing of M1 excitability may prime the brain to be more responsive to rehabilitation therapies and lead to improved functional outcomes. The present study examined the effects of Active-Passive Bilateral Therapy (APBT), a(More)
An important aspect of cognitive control consists in the ability to stop oneself from making inappropriate responses. In an earlier study we demonstrated that there are different mechanisms for stopping: global and selective [Aron, A. R., Verbruggen, F. (2008). Stop the presses: Dissociating a selective from a global mechanism for stopping. Psychological(More)