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The pathway of male sexual development in mammals is initiated by SRY, a gene on the short arm of the Y chromosome. Its expression in the differentiating gonadal ridge directs testicular morphogenesis, characterized by elaboration of Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) and testosterone. SRY and MIS each belong to conserved gene families that function in(More)
This is a review article of neuroimaging studies in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings from structural, biochemical, and functional studies are summarized. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric studies have consistently reported decreased hippocampal volumes in PTSD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies report decreased N-acetyl(More)
SRY, a putative transcription factor encoded by the sex-determining region of the human Y chromosome, regulates a genetic switch in male development. Impairment of this switch leads to intersex abnormalities of the newborn and is observed in association with mutations in the SRY DNA-binding domain [the high-mobility-group (HMG) box]. Here we show that the(More)
Protein-directed DNA bending is proposed to regulate assembly of higher-order DNA-multiprotein complexes (enhanceosomes and repressosomes). Because transcriptional initiation is a nonequilibrium process, gene expression may be modulated by the lifetime of such complexes. The human testis-determining factor SRY contains a specific DNA-bending motif, the(More)
SRY, a genetic "master switch" for male development in mammals, exhibits two biochemical activities: sequence-specific recognition of duplex DNA and sequence-independent binding to the sharp angles of four-way DNA junctions. Here, we distinguish between these activities by analysis of a mutant SRY associated with human sex reversal (46, XY female with pure(More)
The high-mobility-group (HMG) box defines a DNA-bending motif conserved among architectural transcription factors. A "hydrophobic wedge" at the protein surface provides a mechanism of DNA bending: disruption of base stacking by insertion of a sidechain "cantilever." First described in the mammalian testis-determining factor SRY, the cantilever motif(More)
In the CT26 BALB/c murine model of colorectal carcinoma, depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) prior to tumor inoculation results in protective immunity to both CT26 and other BALB/c-derived tumors of diverse histological origin. In this paper, we show that cross-protection can be conferred by adoptively transferred CD8(+) CTLs. Other schedules for(More)
Perceptual function in eight patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) was studied with two neurophysiological measures, the average evoked response (AER) and nerve conduction velocity. A battery of psychophysical tasks including reaction time, size estimation, 'hidden pictures,' and the rod and frame procedure was also used. Patients with PHP had(More)