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Invasive species possess unique traits that allow them to navigate the invasion process in order to establish and spread in new habitats. Successful hull fouling invaders must resist both physical and physiological stressors associated with their voyage. We characterised attachment strength and drag coefficient of common fouling species in order to estimate(More)
1. The most effective way to manage nonindigenous species and their impacts is to prevent their introduction via vector regulation. While ships' ballast water is very well studied and this vector is actively managed, hull fouling has received far less attention and regulations are only now being considered despite its importance for introductions to(More)
The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and(More)
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