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To understand mechanisms resulting in the absence of two-thirds of spinal sensory neurons in mice lacking NT-3, we have compared dorsal root ganglia development in normal and mutant embryos. The reduction in neurons, achieved by E13, results from several deficits: first, elevated neuronal apoptosis significantly reduces neuronal numbers; second, elevated(More)
CONTEXT The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased over recent years. Use of antidepressant medications during pregnancy also shows a secular increase in recent decades, prompting concerns that prenatal exposure may contribute to increased risk of ASD. OBJECTIVE To systematically evaluate whether prenatal exposure to antidepressant(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between physician-documented diagnoses of maternal autoimmune diseases, allergies, and asthma around the time of pregnancy and subsequent diagnoses of autism in children. DESIGN A case-control study nested within a cohort of infants born between January 1995 and June 1999. SETTING Northern California Kaiser(More)
CONTEXT Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAS) is a common cause of hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Risk factors for this condition have not been clearly defined. OBJECTIVE To determine maternal and infant characteristics associated with PAS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Case-control study nested within the cohort of all 199,176 infants born from 1997(More)
Thrombospondins are a family of extracellular matrix proteins expressed throughout the developing nervous system that promote neurite outgrowth in vitro and help mediate the migration of granule cells across the molecular layer in explants of neonatal cerebellum. The receptors mediating these Interactions have not previously been Identified. In this study,(More)
In chick development, ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons go through a period of axon extension from approximately embryonic day (E)4 to E8, followed by a period of synaptogenesis and neuronal cell death. By examining the immunohistochemical localization of laminin, in conjunction with Dil labeling of the ciliary nerve projection, we have determined that the(More)
BACKGROUND Immune anomalies have been documented in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their family members. It is unknown whether the maternal immune profile during pregnancy is associated with the risk of bearing a child with ASD or other neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS Using Luminex technology, levels of 17 cytokines and(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal Rh D status, prenatal exposure to anti-D immune globulin, and the risk of autism in the offspring. STUDY DESIGN Case-control study among children born from 1995 to 1999 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals. Cases (n = 400) were children with an autism(More)
Thrombospondins are a family of extracellular matrix proteins expressed throughout the developing nervous system that promote neurite outgrowth in vitro and help mediate the migration of granule cells across the molecular layer in explants of neonatal cerebellum. The receptors mediating these interactions have not previously been identified. In this study,(More)
To investigate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mid-pregnancy and neonatal blood specimens as early biologic markers for autism, we conducted a population-based case-control study nested within the cohort of infants born from July 2000 to September 2001 to women who participated in the prenatal screening program in Orange County, CA.(More)