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BACKGROUND Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in the United States. In 1996, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that all women planning a pregnancy or capable of conception take a supplement containing folic acid to reduce the risk for NTDs. PURPOSE To search for new evidence published since 1996(More)
OBJECTIVE Little is known about the comparative risks and benefits of medical treatments for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with GDM treated with oral diabetes agents compared with all types of insulin. DATA SOURCES(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review to estimate benefits and harms of the choice of timing of induction or elective cesarean delivery based on estimated fetal weight or gestational age in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). DATA SOURCES An electronic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing(More)
BACKGROUND Hydroxyurea is the only approved drug for treatment of sickle cell disease. OBJECTIVE To synthesize the published literature on the efficacy, effectiveness, and toxicity of hydroxyurea when used in adults with sickle cell disease. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, TOXLine, and CINAHL were searched through 30 June 2007. STUDY SELECTION(More)
CONTEXT Hydroxyurea is the only approved medication for the treatment of sickle cell disease in adults; there are no approved drugs for children. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to synthesize the published literature on the efficacy, effectiveness, and toxicity of hydroxyurea in children with sickle cell disease. METHODS Medline, Embase, TOXLine, and the(More)
OBJECTIVES We focused on four questions: What are the risks and benefits of an oral diabetes agent (i.e., glyburide), as compared to all types of insulin, for gestational diabetes? What is the evidence that elective labor induction, cesarean delivery, or timing of induction is associated with benefits or harm to the mother and neonate? What risk factors are(More)
BACKGROUND The U.S. Air Force Academy is an undergraduate institution that educates and trains cadets for military service. Following the arrival of 1376 basic cadet trainees in June 2009, surveillance revealed an increase in cadets presenting with respiratory illness. Specimens from ill cadets tested positive for novel influenza A (H1N1 [nH1N1])-specific(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the natural history of fetal position throughout pregnancy and the likelihood for nonvertex delivery. METHODS We examined fetal positions at 15-22 weeks, at 31-35 weeks, and at delivery using data from the Routine Antenatal Diagnostic Imaging with Ultrasound trial. Characteristics of women with nonvertex and vertex presentation at(More)
OBJECTIVES To synthesize the published literature on the efficacy, effectiveness, and toxicity of hydroxyurea (HU) when used for treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD); and to review the evidence regarding barriers to its use. DATA SOURCES Articles cited in MEDLlNE, EMBASE, TOXLine, and CINAHL through June 30, 2007. REVIEW METHODS Paired reviewers(More)
OBJECTIVE To update the state of evidence on the efficacy of metformin, used either alone or in combination with clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, by examining three outcomes: ovulation, pregnancy, and live birth. Sources of heterogeneity among the published randomized controlled trials are systematically assessed. DATA SOURCES(More)