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BACKGROUND There has been an increase in 'risk sharing' schemes for pharmaceuticals between healthcare institutions and pharmaceutical companies in Europe in recent years as an additional approach to provide continued comprehensive and equitable healthcare. There is though confusion surrounding the terminology as well as concerns with existing schemes. (More)
INTRODUCTION European countries need to learn from each other to address unsustainable increases in pharmaceutical expenditures. OBJECTIVE To assess the influence of the many supply and demand-side initiatives introduced across Europe to enhance prescribing efficiency in ambulatory care. As a result provide future guidance to countries. METHODS Cross(More)
INTRODUCTION The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilization. However, considerable variation in their use and prices. OBJECTIVE Assess the influence of multiple supply and demand-side initiatives across Europe for established medicines to enhance(More)
BACKGROUND There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are safety and/or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments are needed,(More)
Considerable variety in how patients respond to treatments, driven by differences in their geno- and/ or phenotypes, calls for a more tailored approach. This is already happening, and will accelerate with developments in personalized medicine. However, its promise has not always translated into improvements in patient care due to the complexities involved.(More)
Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing.(More)
BACKGROUND There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are effectiveness, safety and/or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments(More)
Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common disease on wheat in the coastal regions of Turkey. Collections of P. triticina from infected wheat leaves were obtained from the main wheat production zones of Turkey in 2009 and 2010. A total of 104 single uredinial isolates were tested for virulence on 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs) boceprevir (BCV) and telaprevir (TVR) in(More)
Dominik Tomek (tdmia@slovanet.sk) Durhane Wong-Reiger (durhane@sympatico.ca) Vera Vlahovic-Palcevski (vvlahovic@inet.hr) Luka Voncina (luka.voncina@miz.hr) Magda Wladysiuk (m.wladysiuk@hta.pl) Menno Woerkom (m.woerkom@medicijngebruik.nl) Corrine Zara (czara@catsalut.cat)