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EEG-triggered, blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) was used in 24 patients with localization-related epilepsy and frequent interictal epileptiform discharges (spikes) to identify those brain areas involved in generating the spikes, and to study the evolution of the BOLD signal change over time. The location of the fMRI activation was(More)
OBJECTIVE Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) are a major risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We investigated whether ictal/postictal cardiac features were dependent on seizure type within individual patients. METHODS ECG data from patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) undergoing presurgical(More)
A case of fixation-off sensitivity (FOS) in an asymptomatic adult is presented and studied as a model for continuous epileptiform discharges. Video-electroencephalographic (EEG) revealed continuous bilateral occipital spike wave discharges during elimination of central vision, which were shown to be associated with transitory cognitive impairment(More)
PURPOSE Autonomic symptoms during seizures may provide information on seizure onset zone. We investigated whether changes in heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) occur during subclinical electrographic seizure patterns, and whether these have a localising/lateralising value. METHODS EEG and ECG recordings of pharmacoresistant epilepsy patients who(More)
Seizure-induced syncope is uncommon and is usually due to peri-ictal bradycardia and asystole. In contrast, peri-ictal atrioventricular conduction block (AV block) has been reported only rarely. Here, we review the literature on peri-ictal AV block and describe a patient with recurrent episodes of epigastric auras that were occasionally followed by a(More)
The sex ratio, age at onset, and ictal features of nine patients with nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia were compared with those of eight patients with daytime frontal lobe seizures and eight patients with nocturnal motor attacks of known epileptic origin. All patients underwent video electroencephalography telemetry. There were no clinical features that would(More)
Postictal generalized electroencephalographic suppression (PGES) may be involved in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We examined whether the occurrence of PGES depends on seizure type and whether PGES occurs more frequently in people with epilepsy who died suddenly. EEG recordings of people with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsies who died from(More)
AIM To determine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on seizures in patients with refractory epilepsy recorded while undergoing video-electroencephalography (EEG) telemetry. METHODS The video-EEG data of patients who had two or more seizures during video-EEG telemetry (n = 270) were reviewed. Fifty seven patients who had seizures both in wakefulness and(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the utility of EEG source imaging to lateralize ictal patterns in frontal lobe epilepsy, which were nonlateralized by standard EEG analysis. METHODS Prospective analysis of 17 seizures in 8 patients with unilateral frontal lobe epilepsy MRI lesions and nonlateralizing ictal scalp EEG. We applied four EEG source imaging techniques(More)
We have compared interhemispheric time differences (ITD) calculated by coherence/phase and linear and non-linear correlation analyses of generalised spike-wave episodes in 30 patients (15 with primary generalised epilepsy (PGE), 5 with secondary generalised epilepsy (SGE) and 10 with a lateralised epileptogenic area). Most cases were recorded during routine(More)