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Mutations in alpha-synuclein, parkin and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1, and defects in 26/20S proteasomes, cause or are associated with the development of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). This suggests that failure of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to degrade abnormal proteins may underlie nigral degeneration and Lewy body(More)
We have examined the role of glial cells in the toxicity that results from inhibition of reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis by L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in mesencephalic cell cultures. We show that GSH depletion, to levels that cause total cell loss in cultures containing neurons and glial cells, has no effect on cell viability in enriched neuronal(More)
Levodopa is the most effective symptomatic agent in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and the "gold standard" against which new agents must be compared. However, there remain two areas of controversy: (1) whether levodopa is toxic, and (2) whether levodopa directly causes motor complications. Levodopa is toxic to cultured dopamine neurons, and this(More)
Incubation with L-DOPA induced a rise in GSH level in cultures of fetal rat mesencephalon, mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2A), human neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC), pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1), and glia from newborn rat brain, but not C6 glioma cells or neuronal cultures (no glia) from the mesencephalon. The pure neuronal cultures were destroyed by(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous cellular sulfhydryl compound with a variety of essential functions. A histochemical method that was developed by others for the localization of GSH in tissue sections was used to study the localization of GSH in rodent and primate brain. Sections of freshly frozen tissue were stained for 4 min with Mercury orange dissolved(More)
The autoxidation of L-DOPA or dopamine (DA) and the metabolism of DA by monoamine oxidase generate a spectrum of toxic species, namely, hydrogen peroxide, oxy radicals, semiquinones, and quinones. When primary dissociated cultures of rat mesencephalon were incubated with L-DOPA (200 microM) for 48 h, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons (DA(More)
Release of 3H-doapamine or of 3H-norepinephrine and inhibition of accumulation of 3H-dopamine or 3H-norepinephrine by d- and l-amphetamine were studied in slices of rat neostriatum and in slices of rat cerebral cortex. The two stereoisomers of amphetamine were equally potent as inhibitors of accumulation in the cortex, whereas d-amphetamine was(More)
The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the growth of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and on their survival following exposure to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) was examined in vitro. In cultures developing under normal conditions, GDNF at 1 ng/ml optimally improved the survival and stimulated the growth of(More)
Levodopa is the "gold standard" for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a theoretical concern, however, that levodopa might accelerate the rate of nigral degeneration, because it undergoes oxidative metabolism and is toxic to cultured dopaminergic neurons. Most in vivo studies do not show evidence of levodopa toxicity; levodopa(More)