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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To identify risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage, we designed a case-control study of men and women 18 to 49 years of age (the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project [HSP]). This report focuses on SAH. METHODS Patients were recruited from 44 hospitals in the United States. Cases with SAH must have had a(More)
The relation of treatment adherence to mortality after a myocardial infarction was investigated among 2175 participants in the Beta Blocker Heart Attack Trial, which had data for measures of treatment adherence, clinical severity, and the psychological and social features that may influence post-infarction mortality. Overall, patients who did not adhere(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In 1991 we developed the Stroke Prognosis Instrument (SPI-I) to stratify patients with transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke by prognosis for stroke or death in 2 years. In this article we validate and improve SPI-I (creating SPI-II). METHODS To validate SPI-I, we applied it to 4 test cohorts and calculated pooled outcome(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake by peripheral tissues is a cardinal defect in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is also common among nondiabetic individuals, and may be an important risk factor for stroke in both populations. The authors review the definition, epidemiology, and treatment of insulin resistance.(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of impaired insulin sensitivity among nondiabetic patients with a recent TIA or nondisabling ischemic stroke. METHODS Eligible subjects were nondiabetic men and women over age 45 years who were hospitalized with a TIA or ischemic stroke. To measure insulin sensitivity, subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pioglitazone compared with placebo for improving insulin sensitivity among nondiabetic patients with a recent transient ischemic attack (TIA) or nondisabling ischemic stroke and impaired insulin sensitivity. METHODS Eligible subjects were men and women >45 years of age who(More)
This case-control study examined the association between Ephedra use and risk for hemorrhagic stroke. For use of Ephedra at any dose during the 3 days before the stroke, the adjusted OR was 1.00 (95% CI 0.32 to 3.11). For daily doses of < or =32 mg/day, the OR was 0.13 (95% CI 0.01 to 1.54), and for >32 mg/day, the OR was 3.59 (95% CI 0.70 to 18.35).(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To identify risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we examined data from the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project (HSP), a case-control study of hemorrhagic stroke among men and women aged 18 to 49 years. METHODS Case subjects for the HSP were recruited from 44 hospitals in the United States. Eligibility criteria included an ICH(More)
To evaluate whether oral fluconazole reduces the risk of a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients, we conducted a case-control study of patients cared for in a university teaching hospital and two urban HIV-outpatient clinics. Cases consisted of HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts less than 250/microL who developed a first(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hemorrhagic stroke has a high initial mortality rate. While survivors often recover motor function, many experience significant changes in their quality of life (QOL). Available outcome measures assess neurological impairment, disability, or handicap, yet often inadequately characterize the full impact of a stroke on patients' lives.(More)