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BACKGROUND In patients with multiple sclerosis, inflammatory brain lesions appear to arise from autoimmune responses involving activated lymphocytes and monocytes. The glycoprotein alpha4 integrin is expressed on the surface of these cells and plays a critical part in their adhesion to the vascular endothelium and migration into the parenchyma. Natalizumab(More)
abstract A considerable amount of research has investigated the linkage between top management team (TMT) characteristics and firm financial performance. Much of this research relies on demographic data. While these data are reliable and accessible, findings across studies are not consistent. Meta-analysis of several TMT indicators and firm financial(More)
While brain atrophy occurs early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis, exactly how early, which tissues are affected and the rate at which early atrophy occurs are unclear. Regional brain atrophy was investigated in 58 patients recruited within 3 months of onset of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis, who were(More)
Normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in established multiple sclerosis has been shown to be abnormal using a variety of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, including proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), although the stage at which these changes first appear is less clear. Using a 1.5 T scanner and single-voxel (1)H-MRS [TR 3000 ms, TE 30 ms, point-resolved(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), the extent of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion load influences the probability and time to development of clinically definite MS. Cerebral atrophy is recognised in established MS, but its time of onset and whether, in early disease, it is(More)
A methodology is presented for extracting precise quantitative MT parameters using a magnetisation-prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. This method, based on a new mathematical model, provides relaxation parameters for human brain in-vitro and in-vivo. The in-vivo parameters have been obtained from three different regions of normal white matter:(More)
This study used a model for magnetization transfer (MT) to estimate two underlying parameters: the macromolecular proton fraction (f) and the bound pool T2 (T2b) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixty patients with clinically definite MS and 27 healthy controls were imaged using: (1) a dual echo fast spin echo sequence, (2) a MT sequence (with ten(More)