Catherine M. Dalton

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BACKGROUND In patients with multiple sclerosis, inflammatory brain lesions appear to arise from autoimmune responses involving activated lymphocytes and monocytes. The glycoprotein alpha4 integrin is expressed on the surface of these cells and plays a critical part in their adhesion to the vascular endothelium and migration into the parenchyma. Natalizumab(More)
Normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in established multiple sclerosis has been shown to be abnormal using a variety of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, including proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), although the stage at which these changes first appear is less clear. Using a 1.5 T scanner and single-voxel (1)H-MRS [TR 3000 ms, TE 30 ms, point-resolved(More)
While brain atrophy occurs early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis, exactly how early, which tissues are affected and the rate at which early atrophy occurs are unclear. Regional brain atrophy was investigated in 58 patients recruited within 3 months of onset of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis, who were(More)
In established multiple sclerosis, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histograms reveal abnormalities of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter (NAGM). The aim of this study was to investigate for such abnormalities in a large cohort of patients presenting with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis. Magnetization(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), the extent of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion load influences the probability and time to development of clinically definite MS. Cerebral atrophy is recognised in established MS, but its time of onset and whether, in early disease, it is(More)
A methodology is presented for extracting precise quantitative MT parameters using a magnetisation-prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. This method, based on a new mathematical model, provides relaxation parameters for human brain in-vitro and in-vivo. The in-vivo parameters have been obtained from three different regions of normal white matter:(More)
Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) has been diagnosed on the basis of clinical evidence of dissemination in time and space. Previously, it could not be diagnosed in patients with single clinical episodes of demyelination known as clinically isolated syndromes. New diagnostic criteria from the International Panel of McDonald and colleagues incorporate(More)
BACKGROUND The McDonald criteria include MRI evidence for dissemination in space and dissemination in time for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in young adult patients who present with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) typical of the disease. Although a major advance, the criteria have limited sensitivity for making an early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE To(More)
Segmented normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) was investigated in 40 patients with a recent onset and 13 patients with a remote onset of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) using magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histograms. Abnormalities were present in patients with a high risk for MS (recent onset and T2-weighted lesions present) and in those with a(More)