BACKGROUND In patients with multiple sclerosis, inflammatory brain lesions appear to arise from autoimmune responses involving activated lymphocytes and monocytes. The glycoprotein alpha4 integrin is expressed on the surface of these cells and plays a critical part in their adhesion to the vascular endothelium and migration into the parenchyma. Natalizumab… (More)
abstract A considerable amount of research has investigated the linkage between top management team (TMT) characteristics and firm financial performance. Much of this research relies on demographic data. While these data are reliable and accessible, findings across studies are not consistent. Meta-analysis of several TMT indicators and firm financial… (More)
While brain atrophy occurs early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis, exactly how early, which tissues are affected and the rate at which early atrophy occurs are unclear. Regional brain atrophy was investigated in 58 patients recruited within 3 months of onset of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis, who were… (More)
BACKGROUND In patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), the extent of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion load influences the probability and time to development of clinically definite MS. Cerebral atrophy is recognised in established MS, but its time of onset and whether, in early disease, it is… (More)
Optic neuritis is a common condition that causes reversible loss of vision. It can be clinically isolated or can arise as one of the manifestations of multiple sclerosis. Occasional cases are due to other causes, and in these instances management can differ radically. The treatment of optic neuritis has been investigated in several trials, the results of… (More)
A methodology is presented for extracting precise quantitative MT parameters using a magnetisation-prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. This method, based on a new mathematical model, provides relaxation parameters for human brain in-vitro and in-vivo. The in-vivo parameters have been obtained from three different regions of normal white matter:… (More)
We would like to acknowledge the thoughtful contributions made by the Editor, Amy Hillman, and three anonymous reviewers in the development of this manuscript.
This study used a model for magnetization transfer (MT) to estimate two underlying parameters: the macromolecular proton fraction (f) and the bound pool T2 (T2b) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixty patients with clinically definite MS and 27 healthy controls were imaged using: (1) a dual echo fast spin echo sequence, (2) a MT sequence (with ten… (More)
This is an exposition of the BLP method of structural demand estimation using the random-coefficients logit model. It is forthcoming Japanese in Gendai Keizaigaku 1, mikuro-bunseki, edited by Isao Miura and Tohru Naito, Tokyo: Keiso shobo. The English version will stay posted on the web and most likely be revised later.