Catherine Juste

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Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust(More)
Segmented filamentous bacterium (SFB) is a symbiont that drives postnatal maturation of gut adaptive immune responses. In contrast to nonpathogenic E. coli, SFB stimulated vigorous development of Peyer's patches germinal centers but paradoxically induced only a low frequency of specific immunoglobulin A (IgA)-secreting cells with delayed accumulation of(More)
Peptide spectrum matching (PSM) is the standard method in shotgun proteomics data analysis. It relies on the availability of an accurate and complete sample proteome that is used to make interpretation of the spectra feasible. Although this procedure has proven to be effective in many proteomics studies, the approach has limitations when applied on complex(More)
The human gut microbiome is known to be associated with various human disorders, but a major challenge is to go beyond association studies and elucidate causalities. Mathematical modeling of the human gut microbiome at a genome scale is a useful tool to decipher microbe-microbe, diet-microbe and microbe-host interactions. Here, we describe the CASINO(More)
The efficiency of microbial reduction of cholesterol to coprostanol in human gut is highly variable among population and mechanisms remain unexplored. In the present study, we investigated whether microbial communities and their cholesterol metabolism characteristics can be transferred to germ-free rats. Two groups of six, initially germ-free rats were(More)
BACKGROUND Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity is widespread among ingested bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. It is sometimes considered to be beneficial because of its putative lowering effect on cholesterol absorption and sometimes considered to be deleterious because it may compromise normal fat absorption and even promote the formation of secondary(More)
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a regular consumption of yogurt on the composition and metabolism of the human intestinal microbiota. Adult subjects were selected on the basis of daily food records and divided into two groups: yogurt consumers (at least 200 g yogurt consumed per d, n 30); non-consumers (no yogurt, n 21).(More)
Bile flow, biliary lipids and bile acid pool have been studied in growing pigs adapted to a semipurified diet of 2, 10 or 20% lard. After a 5-day period of apparent digestibility measurement, bile secretion was studied in previously fistulated pigs. The apparent digestibility of lard was maintained at a very high level, whatever quantity of lard was(More)
This study was performed with growing chickens (4 to 22 d of age) to evaluate the effects of feeding a rye-based diet supplemented with commercial enzyme preparation containing xylanase and beta-glucanase (Quatrazyme HP, Nutri-Tomen, France) on small intestine wall morphology, bile acid composition, nutrient digestibility, and bird performance compared with(More)
Intensity of the cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion in the intestine, as assessed by the coprostanol-to-cholesterol ratio in faeces, was found highly variable among 15 human volunteers, ranging from absent to almost complete cholesterol conversion. The number of coprostanoligenic bacteria in the same faecal samples, as estimated by the most probable(More)