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Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust(More)
BACKGROUND Peptide spectrum matching (PSM) is the standard method in shotgun proteomics data analysis. It relies on the availability of an accurate and complete sample proteome that is used to make interpretation of the spectra feasible. Although this procedure has proven to be effective in many proteomics studies, the approach has limitations when applied(More)
To examine the effects of beta-cyclodextrin (BCD), a non-absorbable carbohydrate, on lipid metabolism, growing pigs were fed a 0.3% cholesterol-enriched diet for 4 weeks or this diet containing 5% or 10% BCD. Pigs fed a basal diet without added cholesterol or BCD were used as controls. The cholesterol-rich diet induced hypercholesterolemia (1.75 vs. 0.84(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess antibody levels against human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) in serum from individuals in the early and late phase of MS. RESULTS A strong association was found between anti-HHV-6 immunoglobulin M antibodies and early MS (clinically isolated syndromes at high risk for MS, and short(More)
OBJECTIVE No Crohn's disease (CD) molecular maker has advanced to clinical use, and independent lines of evidence support a central role of the gut microbial community in CD. Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and(More)
The biological and clinical consequences of the tight interactions between host and microbiota are rapidly being unraveled by next generation sequencing technologies and sophisticated bioinformatics, also referred to as microbiota metagenomics. The recent success of metagenomics has created a demand to rapidly apply the technology to large case–control(More)
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