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The structural analysis of protein kinase C has led to the identification of a family of related gene products. This family of kinases consists of six unique genes that give rise to at least seven polypeptides. The high degree of conservation and the differential distribution of these mRNAs/proteins suggest that they perform distinct functions in vivo.(More)
Poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation (PARylation) by poly ADP-ribose (PAR) polymerases (PARPs) is an early response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In this paper, we exploit Dictyostelium discoideum to uncover a novel role for PARylation in regulating nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). PARylation occurred at single-strand breaks, and two PARPs,(More)
Reactive oxygen species are known to have a signalling role in many organisms. In bacteria and yeast various response systems have evolved to combat oxidative stress which are triggered by reactive oxygen species. Mammals and plants are known to actively generate reactive oxygen species such as superoxide during signalling responses to a variety of(More)
GskA, the Dictyostelium GSK-3 orthologue, is modified and activated by the dual-specificity tyrosine kinase Zak1, and the two kinases form part of a signaling pathway that responds to extracellular cyclic AMP. We identify potential cellular effectors for the two kinases by analyzing the corresponding null mutants. There are proteins and mRNAs that are(More)
Cell cycle phase at the onset of development in Dictyostelium influences cell fate. Cells in the G2 phase, which tend to become spores, show a more rapid induction of expression of the cell surface receptor involved in the chemotaxis. We show that differential induction of developmental expression is restricted to some transcripts, including those encoding(More)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by either homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). In vertebrates, the first step in NHEJ is recruitment of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) to DNA termini. DNA-PK consists of a catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) that is recruited to DNA ends by the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer. Although(More)
The Dictyostelium ERK2 protein is transiently activated when cells are treated with the chemotactic agents cAMP or folic acid. Activating phosphorylation is markedly inhibited in strains overexpressing the constitutively activated RasG protein. This is in marked contrast to mammalian cells where the highly related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)(More)
Two homologues of mitogen-activated protein kinases have been identified in Dictyostelium discoideum (ERK1 and EKR2). We here demonstrate transient tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK2 in response to the chemoattractants cAMP and folic acid that correlates with activity. To investigate the signalling pathways, we studied the response in strains with altered(More)
ADP-ribosylation is the post translational modification of proteins catalysed by ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs). ADP-ribosylation has been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes including cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Perhaps the best characterised role, however, is in DNA repair and genome stability(More)