Catherine J Pachuk

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Sequence analysis of a substantial part of the polymerase gene of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59 revealed the 3' end of an open reading frame (ORF1a) overlapping with a large ORF (ORF1b; 2733 amino acids) which covers the 3' half of the polymerase gene. The expression of ORF1b occurs by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism since the ORF1a/ORF1b overlapping(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major worldwide cause of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of vaccines against HCV have been complicated by the high variability of the envelope region, and it is likely that the cellular immune responses to viral structural proteins may be important for eradicating persistent(More)
Interleukin 7 (IL-7) protein has been reported to be important in the development of cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, other studies also support a partial Th2 phenotype for this cytokine. In an effort to clarify this unusual conflict, we compared IL-7 along with IL-12 (Th1 control) and IL-10 (Th2 control) for its ability to induce antigen(More)
It has previously been reported that herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 gD DNA vaccine preferentially induces T-helper (Th) 1-type cellular immune responses, whereas the literature supports the view that subunit vaccines tend to induce potent antibody responses, supporting a Th2 bias. Here, using an HSV gD vaccine model, we investigated whether priming and(More)
A spectrophotometric method for quantification of linear DNA is described. The assay measures ADP produced following digestion of linear DNA by an ATP-dependent deoxyribonuclease. Cleavage of the phosphodiester bond of the DNA substrate is proportional to ADP formed in the reaction which follows typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(m) of 0.6 microM, and a(More)
IL-12 has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports have suggested that combining DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory molecules delivered as genes may significantly enhance Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. In particular, IL-12 molecules could constitute an important addition to a herpes vaccine by amplifying(More)
Vaccine design against HIV-1 is complicated both by the latent aspects of lentiviral infection and the diversity of the virus. The type of vaccine approach used is therefore likely to be critically important. In general, vaccination strategies have relied on the use of live attenuated material or inactivated/subunit preparations as specific immunogens. Each(More)
Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were constructed representing the genome RNA of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59). From these libraries clones were selected to form a linear map across the entire gene A, the putative viral polymerase gene. This gene is approximately 23 kb in length, considerably larger than earlier estimates.(More)
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are significant pathogens and major targets of vaccine development. Several attempts have been made to develop prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HSV types 1 and 2. Although these vaccines elicit strong humoral responses, the overall impact on pathology has been disappointing. An effective vaccine for HSV must induce(More)
The impact of vaccination with plasmid DNA encoding full-length glycoprotein D (gD) from herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (gD2), secreted gD2, or cytosolic gD2 was evaluated in mice and guinea pigs. Immunization with plasmids encoding full-length gD2 or secreted gD2 produced high antibody levels, whereas immunization with DNA encoding cytosolic gD2(More)