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Defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) occur frequently in natural populations of pathogenic and commensal bacteria, resulting in a mutator phenotype. We identified a unique genetic element in Streptococcus pyogenes strain SF370 that controls MMR via a dynamic process of prophage excision and reintegration in response to growth. In S. pyogenes, mutS and mutL(More)
Bacterial resistances to diverse metals and antibiotics are often genetically linked, suggesting that exposure to toxic metals may select for strains resistant to antibiotics and vice versa. To test the hypothesis that resistances to metals and antibiotics are coselected for in environmental microbial assemblages, we investigated the frequency of diverse(More)
Resistances to tetracycline and mercury were identified in an environmental strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from a stream highly contaminated with heavy metals. As a step toward addressing the mechanisms of coselection of heavy metal and antibiotic resistances, the tetracycline resistance determinant was cloned in Escherichia coli. Within the cloned(More)
Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) proteins are recognized as pathogen-recognition receptors. An exaggerated activation of TLR4 induces inflammatory response, whereas SP-A protein down-regulates inflammation. We hypothesized that SP-A-TLR4 interaction may lead to inhibition of inflammation. In this study, we investigated interaction(More)
BACKGROUND Coccidioidomycosis or Valley fever is caused by a highly virulent fungal pathogen: Coccidioides posadasii or immitis. Vaccine development against Coccidioides is of contemporary interest because a large number of relapses and clinical failures are reported with antifungal agents. An efficient Th1 response engenders protection. Thus, we have(More)
We recently showed that a prophage-like Streptococcus pyogenes chromosomal island (SpyCI) controls DNA mismatch repair and other repair functions in M1 genome strain SF370 by dynamic excision and reintegration into the 5' end of mutL in response to growth, causing the cell to alternate between a wild type and mutator phenotype. Nine of the 16 completed S.(More)
Streptococcus pyogenes chromosomal island M1 (SpyCIM1) integrates by site-specific recombination into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL in strain SF370SmR, blocking transcription of it and the downstream operon genes. During exponential growth, SpyCIM1 excises from the chromosome and replicates as an episome, restoring mutL transcription.(More)
Curcumin is well known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, since systemic absorption and bioavailability of curcumin from gastrointestinal tract is considerably poor, synthetic curcuminoids are being developed as better alternatives. Two curcumin derivatives: 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) and EF24-dimer linked via(More)
We report a family with an unusual form of autosomal dominant spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia characterized by infantile-onset disproportionate short stature with relative shortening of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, scoliosis and premature osteoarthritis of the joints especially of the hips. Radiological findings include mild platyspondyly,(More)