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Fast and reliable assays to precisely define the nature of the infectious agents causing sepsis are eagerly anticipated. New molecular biology techniques are now available to define the presence of bacterial or fungal DNA within the bloodstream of sepsis patients. We have used a new technique (VYOO®) that allows the enrichment of microbial DNA before a(More)
BACKGROUND Tolerance to endotoxin has been defined and analyzed either entirely in vivo or entirely in vitro. In contrast, the hyporeactivity of circulating leukocytes reported in patients with sepsis, and often referred to as the phenomenon of tolerance to endotoxin, is an ex vivo observation. Therefore, our objective was to set up an ex vivo model of(More)
Persistent presence of PMN in airways is the hallmark of CF. Our aim was to assess PMN adherence, percentage of apoptotic airway PMN (aPMN), and IL-6 and IL-8 production when aPMN are in contact with airway epithelial cells. Before coculture, freshly isolated CF aPMN have greater spontaneous and TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis compared with blood PMN from the(More)
Ex vivo cytokine production by circulating lymphocytes and monocytes is reduced in patients with infectious or noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Very few studies have addressed the reactivity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). To analyze further the relative contribution of systemic inflammatory response syndrome alone or in combination(More)
The capacity to down-regulate the production of IL-8 by LPS-activated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) has been demonstrated for IL-4, IL-10, and TGFbeta. We compared their relative capacities and further extended this property to IL-13. We report a great heterogeneity among individuals related to the responsiveness of PMN to the IL-4 and IL-13(More)
We studied the effects of adherence on the properties of interleukin (IL)-10 on monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that the decrease of CD11b expression induced by IL-10 was enhanced by adherence. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 mRNA, as well as TLR4 surface expression, were significantly up-regulated by IL-10 in adherent(More)
Cryptococcosis is an hematogenously disseminated meningoencephalitis during which the relationship between the disease severity and the immune response remains unclear. We thus analyzed, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine levels in(More)
The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to lipid A for the therapy of gram-negative sepsis is controversial. In an attempt to understand their biologic basis of action, we used a fluid-phase radioimmunoassay to measure binding between bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two IgM mAbs directed to lipid A that are being evaluated for the treatment(More)
As sensors of infection, innate immune cells are able to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns by receptors such as TLRs. NK cells present in many tissues contribute to inflammatory processes, particularly through the production of IFN-γ. They may display a protective role during infection but also a detrimental role during sterile or infectious(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pretreatment of mice resulted in a significantly enhanced survival after disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection. The survival was associated with reduced fungal burden in tissues. LPS-pretreated mice had lower levels of cytokines in blood, spleen, and lungs and higher levels in brain. Pentoxifylline abolished the beneficial(More)