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Fast and reliable assays to precisely define the nature of the infectious agents causing sepsis are eagerly anticipated. New molecular biology techniques are now available to define the presence of bacterial or fungal DNA within the bloodstream of sepsis patients. We have used a new technique (VYOO®) that allows the enrichment of microbial DNA before a(More)
The persistent presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in airways is the hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. The aim of this study was to assess the PMN adherence, the percentage of apoptotic airway PMN and production of cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 when airway PMN are in contact with airway epithelial cells. Before the co-culture, freshly isolated(More)
We studied the effects of adherence on the properties of interleukin (IL)-10 on monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that the decrease of CD11b expression induced by IL-10 was enhanced by adherence. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 mRNA, as well as TLR4 surface expression, were significantly up-regulated by IL-10 in adherent(More)
The capacity to down-regulate the production of IL-8 by LPS-activated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) has been demonstrated for IL-4, IL-10, and TGFbeta. We compared their relative capacities and further extended this property to IL-13. We report a great heterogeneity among individuals related to the responsiveness of PMN to the IL-4 and IL-13(More)
The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to lipid A for the therapy of gram-negative sepsis is controversial. In an attempt to understand their biologic basis of action, we used a fluid-phase radioimmunoassay to measure binding between bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two IgM mAbs directed to lipid A that are being evaluated for the treatment(More)
IL-10 is a well-known immunosuppressive and/or anti-inflammatory cytokine. However, we report in vitro experimental studies in which IL-10 primed leukocytes and led to an enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) upon further stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) prepared from whole blood(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human opportunistic pathogen responsible for a broad spectrum of infections ranging from benign skin infection to more severe life threatening disorders (e.g. pneumonia, sepsis), particularly in intensive care patients. Scavenger receptors (SR-A and CD36) are known to be involved in S. aureus recognition by immune cells in(More)
Hypoxia as a result of pulmonary tissue damage due to unresolved inflammation during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is associated with a poor outcome. Aspergillus fumigatus can exploit the hypoxic microenvironment in the lung, but the inflammatory response required for fungal clearance can become severely disregulated as a result of hypoxia. Since(More)
A critical role for intracellular TLR9 has been described in recognition and host resistance to Leishmania parasites. As TLR9 requires endolysosomal proteolytic cleavage to achieve signaling functionality, we investigated the contribution of different proteases like asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) or cysteine protease cathepsins B (CatB), L (CatL) and S(More)