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Immune status is altered in patients with sepsis or non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Reduced ex-vivo TNF production by endotoxin-activated monocytes has been regularly reported. This observation is reminiscent of the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance, and the term 'leukocyte reprogramming' well defines this phenomenon. This(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the immunoinflammatory profile of patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest, representing a model of whole-body ischemia/reperfusion syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS Plasma cytokine, endotoxin, and ex vivo cytokine production in whole-blood assays was assessed in 61, 35, and 11 patients, respectively. On admission,(More)
Fast and reliable assays to precisely define the nature of the infectious agents causing sepsis are eagerly anticipated. New molecular biology techniques are now available to define the presence of bacterial or fungal DNA within the bloodstream of sepsis patients. We have used a new technique (VYOO®) that allows the enrichment of microbial DNA before a(More)
Sepsis is associated with an exacerbated production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which are detectable within the bloodstream. Their 'half-angel, half-devil' properties are fully illustrated in sepsis. While they are a prerequisite to fight infection, their overzealous production is deleterious. The highest levels are found in plasma of(More)
Beeson (1946) first defined endotoxin tolerance as a reduced endotoxin-induced fever following repeated injections of typhoid vaccine. Freudenberg and Galanos (1988) demonstrated that endotoxin tolerance that can protect against a lethal challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) involves the participation of macrophages. Evans and Zuckerman (1991) reported a(More)
Persistent presence of PMN in airways is the hallmark of CF. Our aim was to assess PMN adherence, percentage of apoptotic airway PMN (aPMN), and IL-6 and IL-8 production when aPMN are in contact with airway epithelial cells. Before coculture, freshly isolated CF aPMN have greater spontaneous and TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis compared with blood PMN from the(More)
OBJECTIVES Interleukin (IL)-8, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is a potent chemoattractant factor and an activator of neutrophils produced by many cell types after stimulation by IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or microbial products such as endotoxins. We investigated whether the presence of measurable IL-8 in plasma was associated with the clinical status(More)
To determine whether growth of bacteria in biofilms triggers a specific immune response, we compared cytokine induction in human monocytes and mouse macrophages by planktonic and biofilm bacteria. We compared Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, two bacteria often colonizing the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Planktonic and biofilm S.(More)
Spore and mycelial allergens of two species of Alternaria (A. brassicicola and A. alternata) extracted under two different conditions were analyzed by radiorocket immunoelectrophoresis, crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis, and Western blotting with a pool of sera from Alternaria-allergic patients. More allergens were extracted after disruption of the cells(More)
The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to lipid A for the therapy of gram-negative sepsis is controversial. In an attempt to understand their biologic basis of action, we used a fluid-phase radioimmunoassay to measure binding between bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two IgM mAbs directed to lipid A that are being evaluated for the treatment(More)