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Using a non-invasive MRI technique for measuring the refractive index distribution through the crystalline lens, refractive index maps were obtained through 20 intact isolated human lenses (7-82years). Focal length measurements, obtained by simulated light ray propagation through each index map were found to be in agreement with direct measurements(More)
PURPOSES To determine axial, vertical, and horizontal eye dimensions in myopic and emmetropic eyes by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to relate these to different ocular expansion models of myopia development. METHODS The internal length (cornea to retina), height and width (both retina to retina) were measured in emmetropic and myopic eyes (up(More)
The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of(More)
PURPOSE To determine and compare the shapes of the retinas of emmetropic and myopic eyes. METHODS Nonrotationally symmetrical ellipsoids were mathematically fitted to the retinal surfaces of 21 emmetropic and 66 myopic eyes (up to -12 D) of participants aged 18 to 36 years (mean, 25.5) using transverse axial and sagittal images derived from magnetic(More)
The Chandra image of the merging, hot galaxy cluster 1E0657–56 reveals a bow shock propagating in front of a bullet-like gas cloud just exiting the disrupted cluster core. This is the first clear example of a shock front in a cluster. From the jumps in the gas density and temperature at the shock, its Mach number is 2–3. This corresponds to a velocity of(More)
ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS The rich cluster of galaxies ABCG 85. III. Analyzing the ABCG 85/87/89 complex. Abstract. We present a combined X-ray and optical analysis of the ABCG 85/87/89 complex of clusters of galaxies, based on the ROSAT PSPC image, optical pho-tometric catalogues (Slezak et al. 1998), and an optical redshift catalogue (Durret et al.(More)
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy, with a prevalence of 2-14 per 100,000 individuals. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and sustained muscle contraction, often with a wide range of accompanying symptoms. The age at onset and severity of the disease show extreme variation, both within and(More)
Teriflunomide is an inhibitor of dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), and is hypothesized to ameliorate multiple sclerosis by reducing proliferation of stimulated lymphocytes. We investigated teriflunomide's effects on proliferation, activation, survival, and function of stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in vitro. Teriflunomide(More)
We compare new maps of the hot gas, dark matter, and galaxies for 1E 0657–56, a cluster with a rare, high-velocity merger occurring nearly in the plane of the sky. The X-ray observations reveal a bullet-like gas sub-cluster just exiting the collision site. A prominent bow shock gives an estimate of the subcluster velocity, 4500 km s −1. The optical image(More)
We present Chandra X-ray Observations of the Hydra A cluster of galaxies, and we report the discovery of structure in the central 80 kpc of the cluster's X-ray-emitting gas. The most remarkable structures are depressions in the X-ray surface brightness, ∼ 25 − 35 kpc diameter, that are coincident with Hydra A's radio lobes. The depressions are nearly devoid(More)