Catherine Emily Carr

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Coincidence-detector neurons in the auditory brainstem of mammals and birds use interaural time differences to localize sounds. Each neuron receives many narrow-band inputs from both ears and compares the time of arrival of the inputs with an accuracy of 10-100 micros. Neurons that receive low-frequency auditory inputs (up to about 2 kHz) have bipolar(More)
The electrosensory system of weakly electric gymnotiform fish is described from the receptor distribution on the body surface to the termination of the primary afferents in the posterior lateral line lobe (PLLL). There are two types of electroreceptor(ampullary and tuberous) and a single type of lateral line mechanoreceptor (neuromast). Receptor counts in(More)
Animals, including humans, use interaural time differences (ITDs) that arise from different sound path lengths to the two ears as a cue of horizontal sound source location. The nature of the neural code for ITD is still controversial. Current models differentiate between two population codes: either a map-like rate-place code of ITD along an array of(More)
The torus semicircularis of Gymnotiform fish is an enlarged laminated midbrain structure which receives lemniscal input from electrosensory, mechanoreceptive lateral line, and auditory systems. The electrosensory input in confined to the dorsal torus, while the auditory and mechanoreceptive systems project to the ventral torus. Anterograde and retrograde(More)
The weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is able to detect temporal disparities as small as 400 nsec between two signals from different parts of the body surface (Carr et al., 1986). The elements of this time-comparison circuit have been identified by EM reconstruction of its component cells. Information about the timing of the zero-crossing of signals on each(More)
The dorsal torus semicircularis (torus) of the gymnotiform fish Eigenmannia was examined in Golgi-impregnated material. These results were correlated with those of a previous HRP study which used retrograde labelling techniques to identify the efferent cell types of the torus (Carr et al., '81, J. Comp Neurol. 203:649-670). The torus is a laminated midbrain(More)
Precise temporal coding is a hallmark of the auditory system. Selective pressures to improve accuracy or encode more rapid changes have produced a suite of convergent physiological and morphological features that contribute to temporal coding. Comparative studies of temporal coding also point to shared computational strategies, and suggest how selection(More)
In vitro whole cell recording revealed intrinsic firing properties and single-cell morphology in the cochlear nucleus angularis (NA) of the chick. We classified three major classes of neurons: one-spike, damped, and tonic. A delayed inward rectifying current was observed in all classes during hyperpolarization injections. One-spike neurons responded with a(More)
The circuit from the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis to the nucleus laminaris supports the encoding and measurement of interaural time differences in the auditory brainstem. Specializations for the encoding of temporal information include the few and/or short dendrites and thick axons of the magnocellular and laminaris neurons, and the high degree of(More)