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Limitation of grain crop productivity by phosphorus (P) is widespread and will probably increase in the future. Enhanced P efficiency can be achieved by improved uptake of phosphate from soil (P-acquisition efficiency) and by improved productivity per unit P taken up (P-use efficiency). This review focuses on improved P-use efficiency, which can be achieved(More)
Mangrove forest coverage is increasing in the estuaries of the North Island of New Zealand, causing changes in estuarine ecosystem structure and function. Sedimentation and associated nutrient enrichment have been proposed to be factors leading to increases in mangrove cover, but the relative importance of each of these factors is unknown. We conducted a(More)
Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise,(More)
The objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in Florida. Impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. In 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with(More)
Spatial gradients in mangrove tree height in barrier islands of Belize are associated with nutrient deficiency and sustained flooding in the absence of a salinity gradient. While nutrient deficiency is likely to affect many parameters, here we show that addition of phosphorus (P) to dwarf mangroves stimulated increases in diameters of xylem vessels, area of(More)
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain increases in plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations with latitude: (i) geochemical limitation to P availability in the tropics and (ii) temperature driven variation in growth rate, where greater growth rates (requiring greater nutrient levels) are needed to complete growth and reproduction within(More)
BACKGROUND CO(2) emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We measured CO(2) efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also(More)
Mangrove ecosystems can be either nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limited and are therefore vulnerable to nutrient pollution. Nutrient enrichment with either N or P may have differing effects on ecosystems because of underlying differences in plant physiological responses to these nutrients in either N- or P-limited settings. Using a common mangrove species,(More)
We investigated the restoration trajectories in vegetation and soil parameters of monospecific Rhizophora mucronata stands planted 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 18, and 50 years ago (restored system). We tested the hypothesis that the changes in vegetation characteristics, with progressing mangrove age, are related to the changes in soil characteristics. The(More)