Catherine E Graham

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Cell-based measurement of prion infectivity is currently restricted to experimental strains of mouse-adapted scrapie. Having isolated cell cultures with susceptibility to prions from diseased elk, we describe a modification of the scrapie cell assay allowing evaluation of prions causing chronic wasting disease, a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform(More)
Prions are infectious proteins composed of the abnormal disease-causing isoform PrPSc, which induces conformational conversion of the host-encoded normal cellular prion protein PrPC to additional PrPSc. The mechanism underlying prion strain mutation in the absence of nucleic acids remains unresolved. Additionally, the frequency of strains causing chronic(More)
Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most(More)
The epidemiology and possibly the etiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have recently been recognized to be heterogeneous. In particular, three types [classical (C) and two atypical (H, L)] have been identified, largely on the basis of characteristics of the proteinase K (PK)-resistant core of the misfolded prion protein associated with the(More)
The preferred method to determine the prevalence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in a country is to use immunology-based rapid-tests. Though these tests are validated to detect C-type BSE disease-associated prion (PrP(sc)), test-specific properties may influence their ability to detect H- and/or L-type BSE PrP(sc), where both are atypical from(More)
To gain insight into the disease progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), we searched for disease-specific patterns in circulating nucleic acids (CNA) in elk and cattle. In a 25-month time-course experiment, CNAs were isolated from blood samples of 24 elk (Cervus elaphus) orally challenged with chronic wasting disease (CWD) infectious(More)
BACKGROUND The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic and the emergence of a new human variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) have led to profound changes in the production and trade of agricultural goods. The rapid tests currently approved for BSE monitoring in slaughtered cattle are all based on the detection of the disease related isoform(More)
Composting may be a viable alternative to rendering and land filling for the disposal of specified risk material (SRM) provided that infectious prion proteins (PrP(TSE)) are inactivated. This study investigated the degradation of SRM and the fate of scrapie prions (PrP(Sc)) over 28 days in laboratory-scale composters, with and without feathers in the(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal neurologic disease that naturally infects mule deer, white tailed deer and elk. The understanding of CWD neurodegeneration at a molecular level is very limited. In this study, microarray analysis was performed to determine changes in the gene expression profiles in six different tissues including brain,(More)
BACKGROUND Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases are untreatable, uniformly fatal degenerative syndromes of the central nervous system that can be transmitted both within as well as between species. The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic and the emergence of a new human variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), have profoundly(More)