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BACKGROUND Affective facial processing is an important component of interpersonal relationships. The neural substrate has been examined following treatment with antidepressant medication but not with psychological therapies. The present study investigated the neural correlates of implicit processing of sad facial expressions in depression pretreatment and(More)
BACKGROUND A mood-congruent sensitivity towards negative stimuli has been associated with development and maintenance of major depressive disorder (MDD). The emotional Stroop task assesses interference effects arising from the conflict of emotional expressions consistent with disorder-specific self-schemata and cognitive colour-naming instructions.(More)
Up until recently, it had been assumed that attentional biases for negative information do not exist in depression. However studies using post-conscious exposure durations have produced contradictory results. The limitations of common attentional tasks, suitability of stimulus materials and differences in stimulus duration times may have contributed to(More)
OBJECTIVE Treatment resistance is a common clinical phenomenon in depression. However, current unitary models of staging fail to represent its complexity. We aimed to devise a model to stage treatment-resistant depression, taking into account the core factors contributing to treatment failure. METHOD We reviewed the literature to identify factors(More)
BACKGROUND Ruminating when depressed is thought to lower mood and impair problem-solving, while distraction is thought to alleviate mood and assist problem-solving. The present study investigates each of these proposals using both naturally occurring and experimentally induced rumination and distraction in a sample of patients with major depression. (More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and voluntary muscle contraction (VMC) to improve corticospinal transmission, muscle function, and purposeful movement early after stroke. METHODS Factorial 2 x 2 randomized single-blind trial. SUBJECTS n = 27, mean age 75 years, mean 27 days after middle cerebral(More)
BACKGROUND Hippocampal atrophy is a well reported feature of major depressive disorder, although the evidence has been mixed. The present study sought to examine hippocampal volume and subregional morphology in patients with major depressive disorder, who were all medication-free and in an acute depressive episode of moderate severity. METHODS Structural(More)
Modifying intrusive memories and images is a powerful intervention in depression and anxiety disorders, but little is known about the presence of these intrusions in bipolar disorder. A semi-structured interview was administered to 29 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, requiring them to report the intrusive memories and images recalled from their most(More)
Eysenck (1983) has previously proposed biological mechanisms for his three personality dimensions. From a psychometric perspective there has been a growing acceptance of a five-factor model of personality incorporating two of Eysenck's dimensions Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N) together with Openness to Experience (O), Agreeableness (A) and(More)
Burden of care, expressed emotion (EE), causal attributions, and salivary cortisol were assessed in 100 carers of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Forty-one carers were rated high EE, which was associated with higher scores of carer distress and strain, and greater reports of noncognitive features in the patient, but not with cortisol levels. High EE(More)