Learn More
BACKGROUND Affective facial processing is an important component of interpersonal relationships. The neural substrate has been examined following treatment with antidepressant medication but not with psychological therapies. The present study investigated the neural correlates of implicit processing of sad facial expressions in depression pretreatment and(More)
BACKGROUND A mood-congruent sensitivity towards negative stimuli has been associated with development and maintenance of major depressive disorder (MDD). The emotional Stroop task assesses interference effects arising from the conflict of emotional expressions consistent with disorder-specific self-schemata and cognitive colour-naming instructions.(More)
OBJECTIVE Treatment resistance is a common clinical phenomenon in depression. However, current unitary models of staging fail to represent its complexity. We aimed to devise a model to stage treatment-resistant depression, taking into account the core factors contributing to treatment failure. METHOD We reviewed the literature to identify factors(More)
BACKGROUND Ruminating when depressed is thought to lower mood and impair problem-solving, while distraction is thought to alleviate mood and assist problem-solving. The present study investigates each of these proposals using both naturally occurring and experimentally induced rumination and distraction in a sample of patients with major depression. (More)
Up until recently, it had been assumed that attentional biases for negative information do not exist in depression. However studies using post-conscious exposure durations have produced contradictory results. The limitations of common attentional tasks, suitability of stimulus materials and differences in stimulus duration times may have contributed to(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is relatively common and accounts for a large proportion of the overall burden caused by depression. We conducted a systematic review of outcome studies of TRD in order to summarise findings on the longer term outcome of TRD and make recommendations. METHODS Studies were identified through MEDLINE(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and voluntary muscle contraction (VMC) to improve corticospinal transmission, muscle function, and purposeful movement early after stroke. METHODS Factorial 2 x 2 randomized single-blind trial. SUBJECTS n = 27, mean age 75 years, mean 27 days after middle cerebral(More)
BACKGROUND Hippocampal atrophy is a well reported feature of major depressive disorder, although the evidence has been mixed. The present study sought to examine hippocampal volume and subregional morphology in patients with major depressive disorder, who were all medication-free and in an acute depressive episode of moderate severity. METHODS Structural(More)
OBJECTIVE The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),(1)(More)
Poor compliance may be detrimental to the effectiveness of a screening programme if those at greatest risk of the disease do not attend. Therefore we undertook a study to test whether non-attenders to a screening programme for low bone density, a risk factor for osteoporosis, were at a differential risk of low bone density compared with attenders. Seven(More)