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Riboswitches are structural elements in the 5' untranslated regions of many bacterial messenger RNAs that regulate gene expression in response to changing metabolite concentrations by inhibition of either transcription or translation initiation. The preQ1 (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine) riboswitch family comprises some of the smallest metabolite sensing RNAs(More)
Many recently discovered noncoding RNAs do not fold into a single native conformation but sample many different conformations along their free-energy landscape to carry out their biological function. Here we review solution-state NMR techniques that measure the structural, kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of RNA motions spanning picosecond to(More)
Single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) are ubiquitous RNA elements that serve diverse functional roles. Much of our understanding of ssRNA conformational behavior is limited to structures in which ssRNA directly engages in tertiary interactions or is recognized by proteins. Little is known about the structural and dynamic behavior of free ssRNAs at atomic(More)
The 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) sequesters and inactivates the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), an essential eukaryotic mRNA transcription factor. The human La-related protein group 7 (hLARP7) is a constitutive component of the 7SK snRNP and localizes to the 3' terminus of the 7SK long noncoding RNA. hLARP7, and in(More)
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