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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an orphan, complex, inflammatory disease affecting the immune system and connective tissue. SSc stands out as a severely incapacitating and life-threatening inflammatory rheumatic disease, with a largely unknown pathogenesis. We have designed a two-stage genome-wide association study of SSc using case-control samples from France,(More)
Familial hypercholesterolaemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the general population: guidance for clinicians to prevent coronary heart disease Aims The first aim was to critically evaluate the extent to which familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The second aim was to provide guidance for screening and treatment of(More)
The discovery of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemic patients with mutations in the PCSK9 gene, encoding the proprotein convertase NARC-1, resulting in the missense mutations suggested a role in low density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism. We show that the endoplasmic reticulum-localized proNARC-1 to NARC-1 zymogen conversion is Ca2+-independent and that(More)
The cytokines controlling the development of human interleukin (IL) 17--producing T helper cells in vitro have been difficult to identify. We addressed the question of the development of human IL-17--producing T helper cells in vivo by quantifying the production and secretion of IL-17 by fresh T cells ex vivo, and by T cell blasts expanded in vitro from(More)
AIMS Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Given recent insights into the heterogeneity of genetic defects and clinical phenotype of(More)
BACKGROUND Vast sample sizes are often essential in the quest to disentangle the complex interplay of the genetic, lifestyle, environmental and social factors that determine the aetiology and progression of chronic diseases. The pooling of information between studies is therefore of central importance to contemporary bioscience. However, there are many(More)
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) plays a pivotal role in cholesterol homeostasis. Mutations in the LDLr gene (LDLR), which is located on chromosome 19, cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe hypercholesterolemia associated with premature coronary atherosclerosis. To date almost 300(More)
BACKGROUND Optimal management, including timing of surgery, remains debated in Marfan syndrome because of a lack of data on aortic risk associated with this disease. METHODS AND RESULTS We used our database to evaluate aortic risk associated with standardized care. Patients who fulfilled the international criteria, had not had previous aortic surgery or(More)
BACKGROUND Severe osteoarthritis and thoracic aortic aneurysms have recently been associated with mutations in the SMAD3 gene, but the full clinical spectrum is incompletely defined. METHODS All SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre and their families were investigated prospectively with a structured panel including standardized clinical(More)
Marfan syndrome is an extracellular matrix disorder with cardinal manifestations in the eye, skeleton and cardiovascular systems associated with defects in the gene encoding fibrillin (FBN1) at 15q21.1 (ref. 1). A second type of the disorder (Marfan syndrome type 2; OMIM 154705) is associated with a second locus, MFS2, at 3p25-p24.2 in a large French family(More)