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Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is characterized by the association of short stature; brachydactyly; joint stiffness; eye anomalies, including microspherophakia and ectopia of the lenses; and, occasionally, heart defects. We have recently mapped a gene for the autosomal recessive form of WMS to chromosome 19p13.3-p13.2, in a 12.4-cM interval. Here, we(More)
Mutations in FGFR 1-3 genes account for various human craniosynostosis syndromes, while dwarfism syndromes have been ascribed exclusively to FGFR 3 mutations. However, the exact role of FGFR 1-3 genes in human skeletal development is not understood. Here we describe the expression pattern of FGFR 1-3 genes during human embryonic and fetal endochondral and(More)
Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of dwarfism, is an inherited autosomal-dominant chondrodysplasia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor 3 (FGFR3). C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) antagonizes FGFR3 downstream signaling by inhibiting the pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, we report the(More)
Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder caused by mutations in one of the two EXT genes and characterized by multiple osteochondromas that generally arise near the ends of growing long bones. Defective endochondral ossification is likely to be involved in the formation of osteochondromas. In order to investigate(More)
Achondroplasia (ACH) and thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) are human skeletal disorders of increasing severity accounted for by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Attempts to elucidate the molecular signaling pathways leading to these phenotypes through mouse model engineering have provided relevant information mostly in the postnatal(More)
Endochondral ossification is the process by which the appendicular skeleton, facial bones, vertebrae and medial clavicles are formed and relies on the tight control of chondrocyte maturation. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)3 plays a role in bone development and maintenance and belongs to a family of proteins which differ in their ligand affinities(More)
Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a lethal skeletal disorder caused by recurrent mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR 3) gene. The mitogenic response of fetal TD I chondrocytes in primary cultures upon stimulation by either FGF 2 or FGF 9 did not significantly differ from controls. Although the levels of FGFR 3 mRNAs in cultured TD(More)
Activating germline fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations cause achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism and a spectrum of skeletal dysplasias. FGFR3 is a tyrosine kinase receptor and constitutive FGFR3 activation impairs endochondral ossification and triggers severe disorganization of the cartilage with shortening of(More)
The fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR3) and Indian hedgehog (IHH)/parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor type 1 (PTHR1) systems are both essential regulators of endochondral ossification. Based on mouse models, activation of the FGFR3 system is suggested to regulate the IHH/PTHR1 pathway. To challenge this possible interaction(More)
Thyroid hormone (T3) is required for postnatal skeletal growth. It exerts its effect by binding to nuclear receptors, TRs including TRα1 and TRβ1, which are present in most cell types. These cell types include chondrocytes and osteoblasts, the interactions of which are known to regulate endochondral bone formation. In order to analyze the respective(More)